Gyuuniku Beef Cows


Beef (gyuuniku) Rindfleisch, Rind

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Various
***** Category: Humanity


gyuuniku 牛肉 beef, often steak
Japanese beef is often very fat, with marble fat, "like frost" (shimofuri).
There are quite a few regional varieties of cows, some are treated like royalty and classical music is played in the shed to keep them happy.

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wagyuu, wagyu 和牛 Japanese beef
from Japanese cattle.

biifu ビーフ beef
roosuto ロースト― roast


Wagyū (和牛)
refers to several breeds of cattle genetically predisposed to intense marbling and to producing a high percentage of oleaginous unsaturated fat. The meat from wagyū cattle is known worldwide for its marbling characteristics, increased eating quality through a naturally enhanced flavor, tenderness and juiciness, and thus a high market value. Several areas in Japan are famous for the quality of their Wagyu cattle, and ship beef bearing their areas' names. Some examples are Kobe, Mishima and Ōmi beef.

The wagyū cattle's genetic predisposition yields a beef that contains a higher percentage of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids[1] than typical beef. The increased marbling also improves the ratio of monounsaturated fats to saturated fats.

Wagyū were initially introduced to Japan as a beast of burden to help cultivate rice. By order of the Shogun, the cowherd in Japan was closed and eating meat from any four legged animal was prohibited from 1635 to 1838. Because of Japan's rugged terrain and isolated areas, different breeding and feeding techniques were used such as massaging or adding beer or sake to their feeding regimen.

It is suggested that this was done to aid in digestion and induce hunger during humid seasons but appears to have no effect on the meat's flavor. Massaging may have been to prevent muscle cramping on small farms in Japan in which the animals did not have sufficient room to use their muscles.

There are five major breeds of wagyū (wa means "Japanese" and gyū means "cow"): Japanese Black, Japanese Brown, Japanese Polled, Japanese Shorthorn, and Kumamoto Reds. Japanese breed names include: Tajima, Tottori, Shimane, Kochi and Kumamoto. Kumamoto Prefecture is famous for their red wagyū cattle. The more famous black variety has their origins in Kobe.
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sukiyaki is one of the most favorite beef dishes.

source : www.daiei.co.jp

sukiyaki, suki-yaki 鋤焼 (すきやき) "food prepared on a spade"
gyuunabe 牛鍋(ぎゅうなべ)、with beef
uosuki 魚すき(うおすき)、with fish
okisuki 沖すき(おきすき)、with seafood
torisuki 鶏すき(とりすき)、with chicken or pheasant
udonsuki 饂飩すき(うどんすき) with udon
kigo for winter

Sukiyaki (Japanese: 鋤焼 or more commonly すき焼き; スキヤキ) is a Japanese dish in the nabemono (Japanese steamboat) style.

often prepared with warishita すき焼きわりした soy sauce and dashi mix
Warishita and Soy Sauce

It consists of meat (usually thinly sliced beef) as the secular, raw part of the meal (namakusa), and a lot of vegetarian ingredients like firm tofu, konnyaku and vegetables, slowly cooked or simmered at the table, alongside vegetables and other ingredients of the sacred aspect of a meal (shoojin), in a shallow iron pot in a mixture of soy sauce, sugar, and mirin (warishita). Before being eaten, the ingredients are usually dipped in a small bowl of raw, beaten eggs.

In the 1890s when Japan was opened to foreigners, new cooking styles were also introduced. Cows, milk, meat, and egg became widely used, and sukiyaki was the most popular way to serve them. The first sukiyaki restaurant, Isekuma, opened in Yokohama in 1862.
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In Kanto, the warishita is put in the pot first, them meat and vegetables are added. In Kansai, only lard is used for the first frying of meat, which is eaten dipped in a raw egg to make it a bit cool. Then warishita is poored in the pot, other ingredients, vegetables and tofu are added with more meat and all is let to stew for a moment.

In Kyoto, the oldest restaurant, Mishima Tei 三嶋亭, had a story to tell about the beginning of the restaurant there.
The founder, a samurai from Kyoto, Mishima Kanekichi and his love Tei made it to Nagasaki to get married and there studied the new ways of eating meat, which was not common in Buddhist Japan. Then they went back to Kyoto and established their restaurant in 1873. The present owner is the 5th generation and keeps up the high standard for meet dishes.

They serve sukiyaki in a hexagonal pan. First some white sugar is placed on the black pan and then one piece of beef for each guest. While it grills on the sugar it makes a delicious sound. This first bite is pure beef, so the guest can enjoy the taste of the carefully choosen marbled meat.
Then the other ingredients are added, warishita poored over it and all is cooked in the usual way.
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shabushabu しゃぶしゃぶ  shabu shabu

Shabu-shabu (しゃぶしゃぶ, also spelled syabu-syabu) is a Japanese variant of hot pot. The dish is related to sukiyaki in style, where both use thinly sliced meat and vegetables, and usually served with dipping sauces. However, it is starkly different in taste as it more closely resembles its predecessor, the Chinese hot pot; shabu-shabu is more savory and less sweet than sukiyaki. It is considered a winter dish but is eaten year-round.
The dish is traditionally made with thinly sliced beef, though modern preparations sometimes use pork, crab, chicken, duck, or lobster. Most often, tender ribeye steak is used, but less tender cuts such as top sirloin are also common. A more expensive meat, such as Wagyu, may also be used for its enhanced flavor and texture.

Shabu-shabu is usually served with tofu and vegetables, including hakusai, chrysanthemum leaves, nori (edible seaweed), onions, carrots, shiitake mushrooms and enokitake mushrooms. In some places, Udon, Mochi and/or harusame noodles may also be served.

Shabu-shabu was introduced in Japan in the 20th century with the opening of a Shabu-shabu restaurant "Suehiro"[1] in Osaka. The name of Shabu-shabu was named when Suehiro served it. After that, Suehiro registered the name of shabu-shabu as a trademark in 1955. The cuisine rapidly spread through Asia and is now a popular dish in Western countries as well. Together with sukiyaki, shabu-shabu is a common dish in tourist hot-spots, especially in Tokyo, but also in local Japanese neighborhoods (colloquially called "Little Tokyos") in countries such as the United States.
Its origins are traced back to the Chinese hot pot known as "shuan yang rou". Shabu-shabu is most similar to the original Chinese version when compared to other Japanese steamboat dishes (nabemono) such as sukiyaki.
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rei shabushabu, reishabu れいしゃぶ / 冷しゃぶ cold shabushabu
a delicacy in summer. Often served on salad leaves.
often pork meat is also used.
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ume beef, Osaka Ume beef 大阪ウメビーフ "plum beef"
From the farm of Harano Shooji
He feeds his 50 cows pickled umeboshi every day, about 1 kg. The cattle does not get any antibiotics, and they seem to like the umebosh. It keeps the cows happy (with an alcohol content of about 12 percent) and free of stress.
The plums come from Choya Umesho in Habikino, Osaka.

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wagyuu tsukudani 和牛佃煮 sweetly simmered Japanese beef
prepared in some areas of Japan, often an expensive present for travellers.
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yaki-niku, yakiniku 焼き肉 (やきにく, 焼肉) grilled slices of meat
Korean-style barbecued beef is quite popular too.
Many restaurants specialize in this kind of food for a group of people to enjoy whilst socializing.
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binchootan 備長炭 Binchotan. special charcoal from Wakayama

used for grilling food


gyuudon 牛丼 (ぎゅうどん) bowl of rice with beef
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mega gyuudon メガ牛丼 expecially large portion

nikujaga 肉じゃが "meat and potatoes"
from Kure city, Hiroshima

The town of Kure is one of the originagors of this dish, together with Maizuru.
Toogoo Heihachiro of the Marine is said to have introduced this dish to the mariners after eating it in Europe.
In Kure, they do not use water but may queen potatoes, beef, shirataki noodles and onions.
If you add also carrots and green peas, it is no longer nikujaga from Kure city.

The city of Kure is also lately trying to introduce the Marine gourmet, kaigun gurume 海軍グルメ, giving some dishes the names of the ships which were most famous for this dish.

Unweit von Hiroshima liegt die Hafenstadt Kure, ein wichtiger Stützpunkt der japanischen Kriegsmarine. Der Admiral Toogoo Heihachiroo (1847-1934) lernte bei seinen Fahrten in Europa ein Gericht kennen, das er seinen Soldaten auf dem Schiff unterwegs zu Essen gab und das von Kure aus ganz Japan eroberte – die inzwischen so beliebte Hausmannskost „Kartoffeln mit Fleisch“ (nikujaga).
In Kure werden dazu nur Kartoffeln der Sorte May Queen, Rindfleischscheiben, Shirataki-Konnyaku-Fadennudeln und Zwiebeln zusammen ohne Wasser eingekocht. In anderen Gegenden kommen nach Geschmack noch Möhren und Erbsen dazu.
Die Stadt Kure bemüht sich mit diesem und anderen Gerichten, die auf Schiffen der Kriegsmarine gegessen werden, einen „Marine-Gourmet“ (kaigun gurume) populär zu machen und viele Restaurants in Kure servieren inzwischen diese Gerichte für die Touristen.


hikiniku ひき肉 minced meat, Hackfleisch
It is produced into

meat balls ミートボール
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hamburgers ハンバーグ
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and German steak dishes ジャーマンステーキ (jaaman suteeki)
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With different sauces these dishes can be varied as mother likes it.

Later on not only beef was used for minced meat, but also pork, chicken and others.


Regional Beef
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akaushi, aka-ushi あかうし "red cows"
from Mount Aso, Kyushu, also Tosa and other regions.
At Mt. Aso, they make Aso hayashi raisu 阿蘇ハヤシライス hashee rice with this beef

akaushi burger from Aso
阿蘇あかうしバーガー Aso Akaushi Hamburger 赤牛ハンバーガー

Akaushi cattle is richly marbled with fat and produces a very tender, flavorful expensive variety of steak which is used in Kobe restaurants.
The largest purebred group of the Wagyu breed of Akaushi cattle outside Japan is located in Harwood, Texas, owned by HeartBrand Beef.
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Hidakagyuu 日高牛 beef from Hidaka

Iki gyuu 壱岐牛 beef from Iki Island, Nagasaki pref.
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Ishigaki gyuu 石垣牛 beef from Ishigaki, Okinawa

Matsuzaka gyuu 松阪牛 beef from Matsuzaka
Mie prefecture
. . . CLICK here for Photos of the most expensive beef filet !
Ami-yaki, amiyaki 網焼き grilled on a net
Grilled beef from Matsuzaka beef is a speciality of Mie prefecture

Mishima Ushi, Mishima gyuu 見島牛 beef from Mishima Island
Yamaguchi prefecture
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On this small island, most elderly farmers still have some of these cows and some oxen. They take a longer time to grow for food, but are kept like members of the family in the barn. About 20 cows are brought to slauter to the mainland every year.

Mokkori gyuu もっこり牛
brand of beef produced in Minamikata town, Hokkaido
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Oki no shima 隠岐の島 Island group of Oki no shima

On the island 知夫里島 they have a long tradition of keeping cows, more than 800 years. The cows are strong and can swim through the sea to the next island, they are called "the sea-crossing, swimming cows" of Okinoshima.
Nowadays, the whole island is used as common grazing land for the calfs and cows. In winter, when the island becmes barren, the cows have to swim to nearby Shimazu island 島津島.
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The famous ekiben lunch from Matsue uses this beef.
Regional Dishes from Shimane prefecture

Oomi gyuu 近江牛 beef from Omi
Shiga prefecture
. . . Oomi Beef in the Edo period Ii Naosuke and Mito no Nariaki

Sagagyuu 佐賀牛 beef from Saga

Shinshuu wagyuu 信州和牛 beef from Shinshu province, Matsumoto
beef from Nagano Prefecture, also called "Shinshu premium beef."
It comes from cattle with black hair kuroge-wagyu (黒毛和牛).
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Shiraoigyuu 白老牛 beef from Shiraoi
Hokkaido. rather dark brown to black cows.
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Tajimagyuu 但馬牛 beef from Tajima Hyogo prefecture
Tajima cattle (但馬牛, Tajima-ushi or Tajima-gyu) is one of the types of black Wagyu cattle in Japan. Many tajima cattle are born in Hyōgo Prefecture and raised as stock for famous beef such as Kobe beef and Matsuzaka beef.
Tajima cattle has been fed from old times in Tajima Province. In the Shoku Nihongi, it is written that “The Tajima-ushi is fit to cultivate the fields, to carry burdens and to eat.” In ancient times, people ate tajima-ushi in their own houses.
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Takamorigyuu 高森牛 beef from Takamori
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Yonezawa gyuu 米沢牛 beef from Yonezawa

BEEF in the Washoku Database


U.K. 'wagyu' cross-breed an affordable favorite

"Wagyu" beef has long been the preserve of Britain's exclusive restaurants and London's high-end stores, like Harrods.
However, the average bloke in the street will soon be able to have a taste of the prized wagyu thanks to a major supermarket chain that wants to bring luxury foods to everyone.

ASDA, part of the Wal-Mart group, has just started breeding cross Holstein-wagyu cattle for its supermarkets and hopes to start selling the product in early 2011.

Although not pure wagyu meat, which retails for as much as $170 per kg, the meat will have many of the characteristics of wagyu (which literally means Japanese cattle) that make it so appetizing to gourmets.

With wagyu, the fat is more evenly distributed than in other meats and it has a highly marbled appearance. The fine strands of unsaturated fat in the meat melt when it is cooked, giving it a greater depth of flavor than other kinds of beef.

Because the store is producing its own wagyu and does not have to import anything, the store is confident it can keep costs down and reduce the price to the consumer.

"wagyu beef is the best in the world, but until now it has been the preserve of the extremely well to do. We want to make it affordable for the average man in the street," said Pearce Hughes, the company's agricultural development manager.

ASDA took semen from two pedigree black wagyu bulls in Britain. Breeders in southern Scotland then inseminated a Holstein cow and a few months later their efforts paid off with the birth of the first wagyu-cross, which they have named Inochi, which means life in Japanese.
The bulls used in the breeding process are the result of implanting Australian full-blood wagyu embryos into cows in Europe. The bulls' genes are linked to the Kedeka and Fujiyoshi lines.

Following the successful birth, farmers will now inseminate further Holstein cows on a Yorkshire farm and the plan is to produce 2,500 wagyu-Holsteins a year, providing 750 tons of meat.

But Hughes adds, "wagyu-cross-Holstein is deemed as the ultimate cross in Japan because the two breeds lay down marbling in exactly the same way, producing top quality meat superior to wagyu-cross-Angus or Red Devon. It has been known for wagyu-Holstein beef to match the eating quality of purebred wagyu in taste trials."

The meat will be less fatty than pure wagyu, but bosses at ASDA believe this will appeal to health-conscious Britons.

Pure wagyu have been bred in Wales on a small scale since 2000. Farmer David Wynne Finch imported some embryos of mixed black wagyu and implanted them into some standard cross-bred beef cows. He has a herd of around 30 wagyu.

The wagyu breed has only been exported out of Japan on three occasions.

While the breed is considered indigenous to Japan, DNA testing has shown it was influenced by European breeds brought about through cross-breeding in the early 1900s.
In Japan, it is claimed that farmers massage their wagyu cows to ensure the fat is evenly distributed. They are also fed grain and given beer to stimulate appetite.
source : Japan Times, October 2009

Worldwide use

Steak, Rinderbraten

Things found on the way


sukiyaki e sewa suru hashi taberu hashi

for the sukiyaki pot
for eating

Sagara Wataru 相良渉


suteeki no sara ni ninjin itsumo kita

a plate with steak
and the carrots always
facing north

Moriya Akitoshi 守屋明俊


sukiyaki no haha e nokotta negi toofu

left over for mother
from the sukiyaki pot ...
leek and tofu

Makido 牧戸俊翠

Related words


Milk and Milk Products




Furikake Ochazuke



Topping for rice (furikake)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Topic
***** Category: Humanity


A dried seasoning for sprinkling over rice. Often green tea is added to a bowl of cold rice, to warm it up for a quick meal. This is called o-chazuke.
Some restaurants prepare special ochazuke, for example chopped broiled eel, to make a speciality.
Furikake used to be home-made with chopped-off leftovers from the day and was a simple dish for farmers.

Literally, furikake just means "to sprinkle over". In modern days, you can even sprinkle them over spagetti or mashed potatoes.

There are many Japanese furikake made especially for children, with special cover images of manga characters.


Furikake (振り掛け or ふりかけ)
is any dry Japanese condiment meant to be sprinkled on top of rice.
CLICK for more furikake It typically consists of a mixture of dried and ground fish, sesame seeds, chopped seaweed, sugar, salt, and monosodium glutamate. Other flavorful ingredients such as katsuobushi (sometimes indicated on the package as bonito), salmon, shiso, egg, vegetables, etc. are often added to the mix.
Furikake is often brightly coloured and flaky.
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Chazuke (茶漬け, ちゃづけ) or ochazuke (お茶漬け)

(from o + cha tea + tsuke submerge) is a simple Japanese dish made by pouring green tea, dashi, or hot water over rice roughly in the same proportion as milk over cereal, usually with savoury toppings.

CLICK for more photos Common toppings include tsukemono, umeboshi (both types of pickles), nori (seaweed), furikake, sesame seeds, tarako and mentaiko (salted and marinated Alaska pollock roe), salted salmon, shiokara (pickled seafood) and wasabi.

The dish is easy to make and provides a way to use leftover rice as a quick snack. It is also known as cha-cha gohan.
This dish first became popular in the Heian period, when water was most commonly poured over rice, but beginning in the Edo period, tea was often used instead. Many warlords gave this dish to their soldiers before a battle, because it keeps the hunger off but gives you stamina.

Since the 1970s, packaged "instant ochazuke", consisting of freeze-dried toppings and seasonings have become popular.
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chacha gohan, cha-cha gohan ちゃちゃご飯

Kaguyahime chazuke 富士かぐや姫茶漬け bowl of rice with tea
From Fuji Town, Shizuoka


CLICK for original LINK and more ... onozomi.com

bubuzuke ぶぶづけ/ ぶぶ漬け bubu is the Kyoto word for tea.
ぶぶ漬け神話 The Kyoto Bubuzuke Legend

In Kyoto, ochazuke is known as bubuzuke. When a native from Kyoto asks if the guest wants to eat bubuzuke (ぶぶづけどうどす?), it really means that the visitor has overstayed his time and is being politely asked to leave.

On the other hand,
it can be the expression of the host to keep the guest a little longer, so you have to read between the lines, "to read the air" (kuuki o yomu 空気を読む ) in Japanese.
If you decide to take up the offer, the host then has to go prepare some special delicious little bento or get one from a nearby shop to treat you.

Kyoto Bubuzuke is often a large bowl with a set of Kyoto vegetable pickles to choose from. Genmai tea with brown rice sprinkles is often used.
Fine restaurants in Kyoto serve bubuzuke for example with a small sample of fish as the last dish of a sushi dinner.

Or with small filets of especially broiled eel.Bubuzuke with eel

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manjuu chazuke 饅頭茶づけ (まんじゅうちゃづけ)
chazuke with half a sweet bun with read bean paste on the cooked rice, manju chazuke.

Mori Ogai (Mori Oogai) 森鴎外 used to love this dish as desert.


monaka manjuu chazuke 最中まんじゅうの茶づけ
CLICK for original link ... gourmet.yahoo
with a wafer monaka of Daruma san !

wafers with Daruma だるまもなか Daruma monaka

Worldwide use

das Furikake, Streugewürz, das über den Reis gestreut wird.

ochazuke, mit grünem Tee übergossene Schale Reis

Things found on the way


natsu no yoi bubuzuke demo to susumerare

summer evening -
how about some bubuzuke?
that is the question

Tahata Masuhiro 田畑益弘

(Free English version by Gabi Greve)

Related words

***** Manga, Anime and Japanese Food Culture
料理漫画. 料理アニメ. グルメ漫画


WASHOKU : General Information

WASHOKU : Regional Japanese Dishes


Fu, wheat gluten



Wheat gluten (fu)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season:
***** Category: Humanity


Fu ふ (麩) wheat gluten, prepared into
various foods
often added to soups. It contains a lot of starch to keep a hungry stomac quiet for a while.
Eaten in exchange for meat, especially in the vegetarian temple food. It is also low of calories and low in fat and easy to digest. So it is given to children and the elderly.
It contains little Lysin and is best eaten toghther with fish or meat to intake all the necessary amino acids for the human body.

When wheat flour is mixed with 80% water and washed out, the gluten starchy part can be separated. The resulting powder is mixed with a bit of "mochi flour もち粉" . So the crunchiness is similar to rice-flour mochi.
Wheat gluten also contains a lot of glutamin acid グルタミン酸, which is good for the brain.
FU came to Japan more than 1200 years ago.

hattai はったい another name for FU
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sweets from Higo are made from hattai flour はったい粉


Distribution of various FU types

source : www.yamashiroya.co.jp


Wheat gluten, also called seitan, wheat meat, gluten meat, or simply gluten, is a food made from the gluten of wheat. It is made by washing wheat flour dough with water until all the starch dissolves, leaving insoluble gluten as an elastic mass which is then cooked before being eaten.
Wheat gluten, although not as well known, is an alternative to soybean-based meat substitutes such as tofu.
In Asia, it is commonly found on the menus of restaurants catering primarily to Buddhist customers who do not eat meat.

Because it was first popularized in western nations during the second half of the 20th century through its promotion by proponents of the macrobiotic diet, seitan (the name by which it is known in macrobiotic circles) is also the name by which wheat gluten is best known in most English-speaking nations.

There are two main forms of fu,
the raw nama-fu, and the dry yaki-fu:

Raw (nama-fu 生麩):
Solid gluten is mixed with glutinous rice flour and millet and steamed in large blocks. It may be shaped and colored in a variety of ways, using ingredients such as mugwort. Popular shapes include autumn-colored maple leaves, bunnies, and other generally "cute" forms. Such shapes and colors enhance the attractiveness of the cooked product since steamed gluten has an unappealing grey tone. Nama-fu is an important ingredient in Shōjin-ryōri, the Buddhist vegetarian cuisine of Japan. It may also be used as an ingredient in wagashi, Japanese confectionery.
Fu-manjū (麩まんじゅう)
is a type of manju made from nama-fu. Solid gluten is sweetened and filled with various sweet fillings such as red bean paste. They are then wrapped in leaves and steamed in a manner similar to that used to prepare Chinese zongzi.

Dry baked (yaki-fu 焼き麩 or sukiyaki-fu):
The gluten is leavened with baking powder and baked into long bread-like sticks. It is often sold in cut form, as hard dry discs resembling croutons or bread rusk. Yaki-fu is typically added to miso soup and sukiyaki, where it absorbs some of the broth and acquires a fine texture that is lighter and fluffier than its Chinese equivalent. It is the most commonly available type of fu in Japanese supermarkets.
In Japan, seasoned "gluten meat" (i.e. seitan, as cooked in the macrobiotic manner) is not well known or widely available, despite the macrobiotic diet's Japanese origins. When used, the terms for this food are rendered in katakana as グルテンミート (Romanized "gurutenmīto," from the English "gluten meat"), or, rarely, セイタン ("seitan"). Outside macrobiotic circles, these terms are virtually unknown in Japan, and they do not typically appear in Japanese dictionaries.
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Various Japanese FU preparations

namafu 生麩 "raw fu"
dumplings can also be colored
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Kyoo namafu 京生麩(きょうなまふ) raw fu from Kyoto
It usually colored. also called FU SASHIMI.
Cut in various patterns, like stars or leaves
green with yomogi, yellow, pink and white.
Tasts almost like mochi, sometimes a little bit of mochiko rice flour is mixed with it.
This has been prepared since the Kamakura period as a type of temple food, brought back from the monks who studied Zen in China. Since monks did not eat meat, they used this as a source of protein. Many temples in Kyoto have their own special forms and blends for FU products.
In Central Kyoto is a speciel FU ROAD, Fuyachoo-doori 麩屋町通(ふやちょうどおり)where many FU shops are located.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

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sasamaki namafu manjuu 笹巻き 生麩まんじゅう
raw fu dumplings, where the fu dough is wrapped around anko sweat beans paste and the whole wrapped in sasagras leaves
sasamaki anpu 笹巻あんぷ
also called fu manjuu 麩まんじゅう.

namafu no dengaku 生麩田楽(なまふでんがく)
square pieces on a skewer, grilled over charcoal and with a paste of sweet dengaku miso and a drop of yuzu citron juice
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namafu no sashimi 生麩の刺身 as sashimi in different colors
with yuzu, yomogi mugwort, kurumi walnuts and konbu
This is a salty preparation that can be enjoyed with soysauce and wasabi to dip it.
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namafu no suteeki 生麩のステーキ stead of fu
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namafu no agedashi 生麩の揚げ出し deep fried with dashi
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fu manjuu 麩饅頭 / (麩まんじゅう)dumplings made of gluten
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yakifu 焼き麩,, baked fu also called
"ring fu", kurumafu 車麩, because it is wrapped around bamboo poles when left drying
fu croutons, bread-like fu pieces

This type is made in many parts of Japan. The dough is placed around a pole and slightly baked until firm, then the next layer of dough is placed around and baked again until it is about one to five centimeters thick. It is sold as sticks or cut like fu croutons.

CLICK for more shonai fu Baked in sheets, itafu 板麩 it is also called
Shoonaifu 庄内麩
It can be flavored with spices and even cheeze.

chikuwafu 竹輪麩 formed like chikuwa (bamboo rolls)
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

tamafu 玉麩 baked in round balls
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

hanafu 花麩 baked, formed like blossoms
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

kanze fu 観世麩 with red and green seaweed spirals
..... uzufu (うず麩) "whirl FU"
Edo kanzefu 江戸観世麩
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

kurumafu no sugomori 車麩の巣ごもり Gluten in a birds nest
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

fu no furai 麩のフライ, 車麩のフライ fried round of fu
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

kyuuri to fu no sunomono きゅうりと麩の酢の物

sudarebu すだれ麩 FU "like bamboo curtains "
made in Kaga, of a long rectangular form. It is used for Jibuni.
Made from wheat gluten and a bit of mochiko rice flour. It is dry and should be watered and then squeezed firmly before use. One sheet is about 5.5 cm wide and 24 cm long, it has a thickness of about 1 cm.
Kagafu 加賀麩.
. . . CLICK here for Photos of "sudarebu" !
Also in green, colored with yomogi
yomogi sudarebu よもぎすだれ麩
„FU wie Bambusvorhänge“

suimono fu 吸い物麩 baked, small pieces for a clear soup
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


aburafu, abura fu 油麩 fried gluten croutons
aburafu-irini shime 油麩入り煮しめ with fat-fu あぶらふ(油麩)
frieed gluten in vegetable oil. Speciality from Tome town
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

from Miyagi prefecture

awafu 粟麩(あわふ) millet-fu
makes it look white
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

gomafu, atari gomafu 当りごま麩(あたりごまふ) with sesame
white ground sesame mixed with wheat gluten.
This can also be mixed with yuzu or black sesame is used.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

CLICK for more photos
kabochafu 南瓜麩(かぼちゃふ) wheat gluten mixed with pumpkin
makes it look yellow.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

matsutakefu まつたけ麩 baked, formed like matsutake mushrooms
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

餅麩(もちふ)gluten mixed with mochi rice flour
made into formed pieces, like flowers or momiji leaves
... umefu 梅麩 like plum blossoms
... sakurafu 桜麩 like cherry blossoms

sansho, misanshofu 実山椒麩(みさんしょふ)
mixed with fruit of mountain pepper.
Mountain pepper from Arima 有馬 is best for this.
eaten as sashimi
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

norifu 海苔麩 mixed with seaweeds

Ogurafu 小倉麩 mixed with azuki red beans

Riku agefu 利久揚げ麩 from the temple Daitokuji in Kyoto.

temarifu 手毬麩 in the form of a temari ball

wasabifu わさび麩(わさびふ)wehat gluten mixed with wasabi
makes a green color. Just a little bit of a hot taste, eaten with soy sauce.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

yomogifu よもぎ麩(よもぎふ) wheat gluten mixed with yomogi
makes a green color
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

yuzu, kodai namafu yuzu 古代生麩 柚子(こだいなまふ ゆず)
mixed with yuzu juice


fusuma ふすま (麩) wheat bran
the same Cinese character FU is used.
The leftovers when polishing wheat grains (bran) is given to the farm animals.
also called
mugi kasu 麦かす, karako からこ (empty children),
momiji もみじ (red leaves) because of their color.
The poor people used to cook these and give them their children instead of rice, which they could not affort. It looked almost as red as "sekihan" rice with red beans, so the poor children were made fun of by their peers. Especially eaten in wartimes.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

seitan せいたん wheat bran
komenuka 米ぬか rice bran


funori ふのり 麩糊 glue made of wheat starch fusuma
shoofunori 正麩糊(しょうふのり)
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Worldwide use

namafu ... rohes Weizengluten, oft mit Reismehl (mochiko) vermischt.
yakifu ... gebackenes Fu, Fu-Croutons
sudarefu ... "Fu wie ein Bambusvorhang"

Things found on the way

denbu 田麩 minced food preparations

tara denbu 鱈田夫(たらでんぶ, 鱈田麩) minced flavored cod
kigo for all spring

A preparation of boiled and then mashed fish, flavored with sugar, soy sauce and mirin. For consumption, this mix is added to sushi or norimaki sushi.


Related words

Ishikawa prefecture
The Kaga Cuisine and FU






Soup stock (dashi, だし、 出し)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Topic
***** Category: Humanity


Dashi is a kind of clear soup stock or broth.
It is used for many dishes including soups, dressings, sauces, broths for simmering broths and noodles.
Dashi is prepared in various ways, with konbu seaweed only or with small dried sardines or katsuobushi bonito flakes.

Dashi contans "umami うまみ (旨み/旨味)" , a natural flavor enhancers in the kelp.

CLICK for more photos


Dashi is Japanese stock, which becomes the base of many Japanese dishes, such as soup, dipping sauce, and nimono (simmered dishes). Since dashi is often used in Japanese cooking, it's useful to know how to make it. There are different kinds of dashi. It can be made from kombu (dried kelp), katsuo-bushi (dried bonito) flakes, niboshi (dried small sardines), hoshi-shiitake(dried shiitake mushrooms), and more. Kombu dashi and dried shiitake mushroom dashi are known as good vegetarian stocks. It might take extra effort to make dashi, but good dashi makes your Japanese dishes taste much better. Let's learn to make different kinds of dashi.

. . . . . Recipes
Kombu Dashi Recipe - for clear soup, nabe (hot pot dishes), and more.
Katsuo Dashi Recipe - for nimono, clear soup, miso soup, and more.
Kombu and Katsuobushi Dashi Recipe - for clear soup, nimono, noodle dipping sauce, and more.
Niboshi Dashi Recipe - for miso soup, nimono, and more.
Hoshi-shiitake Dashi Recipe - for nimono, and more.
Japanese dashi is best used on the day it was made. If you have some leftover dashi, keep it in a covered container. It can be kept in the refrigerator for a couple of days.

Japanese dashi is best used on the day it was made. If you have some leftover dashi, keep it in a covered container. It can be kept in the refrigerator for a couple of days.

Instant dashi powder is also available at stores. If you don't have much time, it's quick to use dashi powder to make dashi stock. Usually, about 1 tsp of dashi powder is used for 3 to 5 cups of water. Follow the instructions in the packages. Dashi powder includes some salt, so adjust the flavor of dishes as needed.
source :  japanesefood.about.com



Umami (旨味) is one of the five basic tastes sensed by specialized receptor cells present on the human tongue. The same taste is also known as xiānwèi (traditional Chinese: 鮮味; simplified Chinese: 鲜味) in Chinese cooking.

Umami is a Japanese word meaning savory, a "deliciousness" factor deriving specifically from detection of the natural amino acid, glutamic acid, or glutamates common in meats, cheese, broth, stock, and other protein-heavy foods. The action of umami receptors explains why foods treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG) often taste "heartier".

Glutamate has a long history in cooking: it appears in Asian foods such as soy sauce and fish sauce, and in Italian food in parmesan cheese and anchovies. It also is directly available in monosodium glutamate (MSG).

In as much as it describes the flavor common to savory products such as meat, cheese, and mushrooms, umami is similar to Brillat-Savarin's concept of osmazome, an early attempt to describe the main flavoring component of meat as extracted in the process of making stock.

Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University while researching the strong flavor in seaweed broth. Ikeda isolated monosodium glutamate as the chemical responsible and, with the help of the Ajinomoto 味の素 company, began commercial distribution of MSG products.

taste receptors
CLICK for original LINK Acknowledged subjectively as a special taste by Eastern civilizations for generations, umami has been described in biochemical studies identifying the actual taste receptor responsible for the sense of umami, a modified form of mGluR4named "taste-mGluR4".

Umami tastes are initiated by these specialized receptors, with subsequent steps involving secretion of neurotransmitters, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and serotonin. Other evidence indicate guanosine derivatives may interact with and boost the initial umami signal.

Umami flavor is strongest when combined with aromas (e.g., monosodium glutamate and garlic), a result leading to speculation that glutamate may stimulate umami effects by acting simultaneously with the aromas, texture, and appearance of food.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Ajinomoto Panda Bottle 味の素パンダ


Dried bonito pieces or flakes (katsuobushi)

ichiban dashi 一番だし first brew of dashi
niban dashi 二番だし second brew of dashi

The first brew has a delicate flavor and fragrant aroma, it is mainly used for clear soups.
The second brew is not so refined in taste and rather used for simmering liquid.
erste Dashi, zweite Dashi

irodashi, iro-dashi いろだし【色出し】
prepare food to bring its natural colors alive. (not related to DASHI liquid.)

oikatsuo, oi-katsuo 追いカツオ "adding katsuo bonito flakes"
If a soup or dashi does not seem delicious enough, some more flakes are added for extra umami.

Dashi powder on shelves

241 dashi

240 dashi suppen

. . . CLICK here for konbu dashi Photos !

. . . CLICK here for niboshi dashi Photos !


dashimaki 出し巻き/ だし巻き/ 出汁巻き
mit Dashi zubereitetes japanisches Omelett
dashimaki tamago (出し巻き卵)
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Worldwide use

Fischboullion; klare Brühe; Dashi (aus Bonito und Tang)

Things found on the way


Related words




Buta pig and pork


Pig and Pork (buta, ton 豚 ぶた)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Non-seasonal Topic
***** Category: Humanity


In the barn, it is the pig, on your plate, the pork ...

CLICK for some Japanese Pigs

Saiboku Ham / Pig and Pork Museumサイボク
Saitama 埼玉県日高市下大谷沢546

Saiboku featured a Daruma Exhibition in December 2009 !
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


butaniku ryoori 豚肉 料理 pork dishes
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Aomori butaniku 青森 豚肉 pork meat from Aomori
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Asahi buta 新潟産朝日豚 pigs from Niigata prefecture
bacon steak from Asahi pigs ベーコンステーキ
CLICK for more photos

Azumino buta 安曇野豚 pork meat from Azumino, Nagano pref.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

butabara 豚バラ, buta baraniku 豚ばら肉 pork belly meat
Schweinebauch. Often used for kakuni
. . . CLICK here for Photos ! 

butaman パンダまん
and pandaman from Yokohama Chinatown

buta no kakuni 豚かくに / 豚角煮 square pieces of pork
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

butaniku 豚肉 ぶたにく pork meat

buta sorobo 豚そぼろ minced pork meat
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

chaashuu チャーシュー roast pork, chinese style
mostly placed on ramen soup
CLICK for more photos
Ramen, raamen ラーメン Chinese noodle soup

Hoe Buta Don ホエー豚丼 bowl of rice with Hoe Buta
from Hokkaido. hoe-buta from Hanabatake Bokujo (hana batake)
Hanabatake Bokujoo 花畑牧場 in Hokkaido
This brand of pork contains a lot of collagen.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


kurobuta 黒豚 black pig, black pork
often prepared as kakuni 角煮
Speciality of Kagoshima and Okinawa. The pigs are Berkshire and have black hair, but the skin is pink. They have short legs, stubby snouts and upright ears.
These pigs had been given to the Ryukyu kingdom in 1800 from the government of England and some pigs made it to Satsuma (now Kagoshima prefecture).
It takes longer to raise and is more difficult to bring to reproduce. But the pork tasts much better than from a white pig. It is marbled with soft white fat and has a rich taste.
CLICK for more photos


Mikawa pooku 三河ポーク Mikawa pork
Mikawa buta みかわ豚 pork from Mikawa, Aichi

nibuta 煮豚 simmered pork
served alone or on ramen noodles in soup, as a kind of chaashu.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

shirkorokoro, shiro korokoro 白コロコロ grilled long intestines
The intestines of pork are sometimes called "white" shiro. korokoro referst to the rather hard pieces being rolled on the grill to get them done. The result is a rather chewy bite.

shoogayaki 豚肉しょうが焼き ginger pork
butaniku shoogayaki
roasted pork with ginger flavor, served with cut cabbage
One of the most popular dishes.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


subuta 酢豚 "sweet and sour pork"
simmered in vinegar
a dish of Chinese cuisine, but very popular in Japan
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

subuta no sara o fuchidoru ryuu ya fuyu no kure

the dragon at the border
of my plate of sweet and sour pork -
winter dusk

Fujita Satoshi 藤田哲史


tonkatsu 豚カツ cutlet from pork
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tonkotsu とんこつ 豚骨 bones of pigs
used to prepare soup stock
Charshu Pork Ramen
Tonkotsu Noodle Soup とんこつラーメン tonkotsu raamen
with pieces of pork meat (chaashuu) grated red pickled ginger and chopped spring onions. Sometimes half a hard boiled egg is added for extra stamina.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

tonsoku 豚足 とんそく  feet of pig, Eisbein
In Fukuoka, it is very popular, either cooded or fried or grilled.
Grilled with pepper and salt it is WHITE, shiro.
Grilled with hot chili sauce and shichimi toogarashi it is RED, aka.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

--- age-tonsoku 揚げ豚足 pig feed deep-fried
with a ponzu vinegar sauce and some cabbage, served in izakaya
熊本 speciality of Kumamoto.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Yamagata sangen pooku 山形 三元豚 pork from Yamagata
Shoonai pooku  庄内豚 pork from Shonai, Yamagata
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Yamato buta やまと豚 Yamato pork
from Gunma prefecture, furiiden bokujoo フリーデン牧場
Father pig is デュロック種, mother pig is ランドレース種 and 大ヨーク種.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Yanaka shooga no buta roosu maki 谷中しょうがの豚ロース巻き
Yanaka ginger wrapped with pork loin
A kushiage dish.

Yanbaru buta 沖縄・やんばる豚 from Yanbaru, Okinawa
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Pork dishes from Okinawa


inobuta, ino buta イノブタ cross between pig and wild boar
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Worldwide use

Schwein, Schweinebraten, Schweinefleisch, Schweinekotelett, Schweineschnitzel

Things found on the way

Buta ... ぶただるま ... Pig Daruma


konkatsu, kon-katsu 婚活,婚カツ Marriage Hunting
結婚活動 kekkon katsudoo
restaurants, shrines, temples and other open spaces are trying to invite lonely people interested in marriage to meet and chat.
When a couple finds each other, they go eat a tonkatsu ... what else !

The word surfaced in 2007, after a book was published "Konkatsu no jidai 婚カツの時代" (The era of marriage-hunting), by Masahiro Yamada and Toko Shirakawa.

HAIKU and Senryu

kogarashi ni kusu-kusu buta no netari keri

in winter wind
the pig giggles
in his sleep

This is only the second haiku that I have translated by Issa that mentions a pig. Shinji Ogawa notes,
"From China and Holland, pigs were imported to Nagasaki in the middle of the Edo period but propagated only sporadically until the Meiji period because they belonged to the 'foul food' category (any meat of a four-legged animal was considered 'foul food')."

Tr. and comment from David Lanoue


chikatetsu no iriguchi ni nita buta no hana 

it looks like the
entrance to the subway ...
nose of this pig

Aki no Tsuki 秋の月


buta nigete ue kara warau kasen koo  

the pig escaped ...
from above the laughter
of the wiring worker  

Kooon 弘温


mihon to wa chigau usude na katsu raisu

much thinner than
the plastic sample ...
pork cutlet on rice

Man Yanagi 万柳

Related words

***** butakusa 豚草 (ぶたくさ) "pig plant", ragweed
Ambrosia artemisiifolia
plant kigo for late summer


All about MEAT and
Day of Meat (niku no hi)
Febraruy 9, NI KU

WASHOKU : Regional Japanese Dishes

. Katsu !! - Koan and Daruma

pork from Japan

Baniku Horse Meat



Horse meat, baniku ばにく/ 馬肉

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Topic, see below
***** Category: Humanity


Horse meat (euphemistically called "sakura niku" 桜肉) is eaten in some parts of Japan.

Horse is a kigo in various seasons
Horse, Pony (uma, ba 馬, ポニー)

There are some puns using the pronounciation of
UMA as in UMAI 美味い、うまい, delicious food.

CLICK for more photos

Since meat was not allowed for pious Buddhists to eat, they called this meat

sakuraniku 桜肉 "cherry blossom meat"

Horse meat has a sweet taste, it is rich in proteins and low in fat and calories and good for the health. It contains a lot of collagen, which helps the female skin beauty.
Horse meat has been eaten since olden times in Asia to nourish people.

In the late Paleolithic (Magdalenian Era), wild horses formed an important source of food. In pre-Christian times, horse meat was eaten in northern Europe as part of Germanic pagan religious ceremonies, particularly those associated with the worship of Odin.
Horse meat gained widespread acceptance in French cuisine during the later years of the Second French Empire.
Despite the general Anglophone taboo, horse and donkey meat was eaten in Britain, especially in Yorkshire, until the 1930s, and in times of post-war food shortage surged in popularity in the United States and was considered for use in hospitals.
It is a taboo food in many cultures.

In most countries where horses are slaughtered for food, they are processed in a similar fashion to cattle, i.e., in large-scale factory slaughter houses (abattoirs) where they are stunned with a captive bolt gun and bled to death.
In 2005, the eight principal horsemeat producing countries produced over 700,000 tonnes of this product.

In Japanese cuisine, raw horse meat is called sakura (桜) or sakuraniku (桜肉, sakura means cherry blossom, niku means meat) because of its pink color. It can be served raw as sashimi in thin slices dipped in soy sauce, often with ginger and onions added. In this case, it is called basashi (Japanese: 馬刺し). Basashi is an essential part of Japanese cuisine and it is rare for an izakaya not to offer it. Fat, typically from the neck (tategami たてがみ, koone コウネ), is also found as basashi, though it is white, not pink. Horse meat is also sometimes found on menus for yakiniku (a type of barbecue), where it is called baniku (馬肉, literally, "horse meat") or bagushi ("skewered horse"); thin slices of raw horse meat are sometimes served wrapped in a shiso leaf.
There is also a dessert made from horse meat called basashi ice cream 馬刺のアイスクリーム. The company that makes it is known for its unusual ice cream flavors, many of which have limited popularity.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Restaurant UMAKAROO 馬かろう 
"This is delicious" (horse meat)
Okayama 岡山県井原市上出部町493-2


Eating horse meat

Horse meat was given to the soldiers by the warlord Kato Kiyomasa 加藤清正, when during the fight of Keicho in 1597 (Keichoo no eki けいちょうのえき【慶長の役】) all other meat and food was eaten and they had to slaughter the riding horses to keep alive.

Horse meat was eaten in Kumamoto and Oita as well as Nagano, Yamanashi and other regions of Northern Japan, which had an extensive horse culture in the past.

. Kato Kiyomasa 加藤清正 .


baniku sushi 馬肉寿司 sushi with raw horse meat
It does not have a RAW flavor at all.

barebaa sashimi 馬レバー刺身 raw horse liver sashimi
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

basashi 馬刺し raw horse meat
speciality of Kumamoto and Oita as well as Nagano and other regions of Northern Japan, which had an extensive horse culture in the past.
Three different types with various degree of fat (shimofuri 霜降り桜肉) are offerd.
Served with many green perilla leaves to wrap it in. The parts from the neck are most fatty and look almost white.
Some onion slices (or sliced garlic) are placed on the plate too.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

CLICK for more photos
basashi ice cream 馬刺のアイスクリーム
basashi aisu 馬刺しアイス
ice with raw horse meat flavor ... YES

batan, umatan 馬タン horse tongue
also smoked
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

umabara yakiniku 馬バラ焼肉 horse belly meat grilled
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

umadoomyaku 馬動脈焼き horse artery grilled

umahaatoyaki 馬ハート焼き horse heart meat

umahorumonyaki 馬ホルモン焼き horse intestines grilled
... yomenakashi 馬よめなかし
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

umashabu 馬しゃぶ Shabushabu with horse meat
speciality of Kumamoto
Eaten with sweet soy sauce and grated ginger to dip the meat.
also as sukiyaki with horse meat
CLICK here for PHOTOS !


umanabe, sakuranabe, sakura nabe 馬鍋
hodgepodge stew with horse meat

lit. "cherry blossom stew".
banikusuki 馬肉鋤(ばにくすき)、ketobashi けとばし
Usually with miso paste.
When the long intestines of the horse 馬腸 are served too, it is called
nanko nabe, nankonabe なんこ鍋
CLICK for more photos

kigo for all winter

Worldwide use

Pferdefleisch, rohes Pferdefleisch

Things found on the way

Yaseuma やせうま / Oita 大分
A noodle dish not related to horse meat.
Uma ... umai


Eating meat from four-legged animals
botannabe of wild boar
momijinabe of deer


sakuranabe shiroyama aruki tsuraretari

horse meat stew ...
walking on the castle mountain
I am really tired

Minagawa Bansui 皆川盤水


osoku kite wakamono hitori sakuranabe

one came late,
a young one ...
horse meat stew

Fukami Kenji 深見けん二

Related words








backup from HERE


this file is not updated.


Shiogama has prospered as the home of the Shiogama Shrine and as a harbour city.In ancient times a god named Shiotsuchi no oji no kami, is said to have come to Shiogama and to have taught the people how to make salt. Shiogama, meaning salt caldron, derived its name from this legend.Today, the ancient salt making ritual is still performed every July at the Okama Shrine in Shiogama.
Shiogama Myoojin (塩釜明神, 鹽竈明神)
WDK : Sail-cord Festival (hote matsuri). Shiogama


Salt in used as a means to purify a place in Japanese culture.

Sumo wrestlers throw a hand full of salt in the ring before the battle, to purify it of any negative feelings the arena may hold from past bouts .

More about ritual use of SALT worldwide here:
© Wor. H. Meij

After a funeral, visitors get a small package of salt to purify themselves before they return home. O-kiyomejio お清め塩 .

Morishio (morijio 盛り塩) - a symbolic mound of salt at the side of the entrance to a Japanese restaurant.

According to the story, there was once a Chinese emperor who had 3,000 concubines waiting in little houses outside the palace gates. Every night the emperor would set out in an ox cart to visit one or the other of them. One clever concubine, knowing that animals are fond of salt, decided to improve her odds of a royal rendezvous by putting salt outside her door. The imperial ox made a beeline for the salt and couldn't be budged, so, while the emperor may have had a different destination in mind, he ended up spending the night with her.
Morijio ... more details are HERE !


salt with kurome (seaweed), kuromejio くろめ塩

くろめ(黒海布/黒布/黒菜) クロメ
kurome is a kind of konbu. It is powdered and mixed with salt.
The mixture is eaten with fresh sea-urchin eggs (uni).

salt with seaweed 藻塩 mojio
eaten with tempura
CLICK here for PHOTOS !
Records of this salt

Prepared first in Yamato by the god 塩推之神.

salt with macha green tea powder 抹茶塩 machajio
eaten with tempura
CLICK here for PHOTOS !


Salt-tasting Jizo Bosatsu
Shioname Jizo 塩嘗地蔵

This is a small statue in the neighbourhood of Kamakura, where I used to live closeby in the mountains of Juniso.
It is at the foot of the Asahina pass road from Kamakura to the Bay of Tokyo.

This strangely named statue stands within the grounds of Kosokuji Temple. It is enshrined in a small wooden house, together with six smaller Jizo, the Roku Jizo (六地蔵), guardian deities of the Six Realms of the afterlife:
Hell (地獄), Hungry Spirits (餓鬼), Animals (畜生), Bellicose Spirits (阿修羅), Human Beings (人間), and Heaven (天).

In earlier days, the statue stood beside the main road where many people passed by. The name of this Jizo derives from the following story: In the early days, salt sellers offered the Jizo a portion of their salt on their way to the town of Kamakura because they hoped for a successful trade. On their return, they always noticed that the salt was gone. They innocently believed Jizo had graciously tasted it and would give them luck. The legend attests the importance of this road for transportation of daily necessities such as salt.
Look at more photos of the area here:
 © Kamakura: History & Historic Sites


Tobacco and Salt Museum
Shibuya, Tokyo

The Tobacco and Salt museum might seem a bit of a quirky museum to outsiders but to the Japannese both of these products have been very important in Japanese culture and trade for centuries. This museum traces the history and the importance of both tobacco and salt and its relationship with man.

The third floor is all about salt, its production and uses and its importance to us all. Thre are dioramas and detailed displays which explain salt harvest technologies and the worlds relieance on this natural resource. Japan harvests all of its salt from the sea while many countries expecially in Europe or Asia have natural deposists which they mine. The Japanese are facinated by these salt caves. Some of the displays show the amazing imagination used to create clever salt extraction methods from sea water.

By comparison with other heavily populated parts of the world, Japan has always been at a disadvantage, for it has no known rock-salt deposits or other terrestrial salt sources, while its relatively low median temperatures and heavy rainfall make reliance on natural evaporation impracticable.

Until relatively recent times, importation of salt from abroad was difficult if not impossible, due to the island nation's distance from the continent. Thus, Japan was forced to develop its own salt technology, some aspects of which are not found elswhere.

In general, Japanese salt production was carried on in two stage First, various methods were utilized to produce a heavily condensed saline solution from ordinary sea water; in the second stage, this salt concentrate was boiled down to yield a residue of edible sea salt.

Even with the universal mechanisation in use today, these two processes still form the groundwork of salt manufacture in Japan; the search for increased efficiency in extracting salt from sea water continues to challege the ingenuity of contemporary scientists and technician. The scope of their research is not limited to edible salt production alone, for the growing significance of soda and soda derivatives in modern industry has if anything, increased the importance of salt as one of the indispensable raw materials necessary for the advanced technology of today.

Tobacco and Salt Museum


Shio no michi 塩の道 The Salt Road  
"Chikuni Kaido" 'chikuni kaidoo 千国街道(ちくにかいどう)
From Niigata to Matsumoto in Nagano


The Salt-boiling Islands, Shiwaku Shotoo (塩飽諸島)
The group is situated between Okayama Prefecture and Kagawa Prefecture in the western Bisan Seto and consists of 28 islands of various sizes. On the Okayama side lie the Kasaoka Islands. The name derives from shioyaku (塩焼く, shioyaku) or shiowaku (潮湧く, shiowaku) both meaning boiling seawater to get salt.

Shamijima 沙弥島
Due to a land reclamation of the Sakaide Bannosu (番の州, Bannosu?) industrial area in December 1967, the island became connected to the adjacent land. Adjoining, the island services the Seto Ohashi Memorial Park. In summer the island is crowded by guests who come to bath in the sea. From the Jomon period on the salt making culture developed. At Nakanda beach (ナカンダ浜, nakanda-hama) earthenware and other finds from that time have been excavated.

The Man'yōshū poet Kakinomoto no Hitomaro paid a visit to the island and composed a tanka and tanka appendage. According to the novelist Nakagawa Yoichi (中河与一, Nakagawa Yoichi?) from Sakaide, Kakinomoto no Hitomaro had a temple/monument erected on Nakanda beach which in 1936 was moved to its present location on Osogoe beach (オソゴエの浜, Osogoe beach?) at (人麻呂岩).

Yoshima 与島,
part of Sakaide and one of the seven "salt boiling islands". area: 1.10 km², circumference: 6.9 km. The island is crossed by the Great Seto Bridge and a rest area ("Yoshima parking area") has been build along the highway.

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Sakaide and Kume Tsuuken 久米通賢(くめつうけん)坂出
Sakaide is the biggest trading port in Shikoku, dealing with about 34,700 cargo ships and tankers each year. Until the 1960s it was known for the greatest salt production in Japan. Visiting Kamada Kyosai-kai Kyodo Hakubutsu-kan Museum is like visiting Sakaide as it used to be. There are lots of interesting objects from the earliest salt-making pots (300-600 A.D.) to innovations in the 19th century by Kume Tsuken, the founder of Sakaide as a Salt City.
Sakaide is an industrial town of 60,000 located 22 km west of Takamatsu. It is a traditional area for sea-salt production.

source :  www.lansingsc.org

Shio Yashiki in Kurashiki

Worldwide use

Things found on the way


Related words

***** WKD Reference