4/07/2009

Goboo Kyoto Vegetables

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Burdock (goboo)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: See below
***** Category: Plant and Humanity


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Explanation

edible burdock, comfrey, gobo, goboo 牛蒡
Arctium lappa, Greater Burdock
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japanische Schwarzwurzel, "grosse Klette"

It has medicinal properties and is used in Chinese medicine (kanpo). Said to help with fatique, prevents catching a cold, provokes urin production and detoxifies.
Japan seems the only place where it is eaten as a normal vegetable.
Before use in Japanese food it has to be soaked in vinegar to remove the bitterness. Its fibers are good for digestion.

kinpira goboo 金平, the name comes from the Strong Boy, Kintaroo 金太郎.
Kintaro, Daruma daki Kintaroo だるま抱き金太郎
Something that gives you strenth, kin hira 金平



planting burdock, goboo maku 牛蒡蒔く(ごぼうまく)
kigo for spring


flower of burdock, goboo no hana 牛蒡の花 (ごぼうのはは)
kigo for summer


planting burdock in autumn, aki no goboo maku
秋の牛蒡蒔く
pulling out burdock, goboo hiku 牛蒡引く (ごぼうひく)
digging for burdock, goboo horu 牛蒡掘る (ごぼうほる)
kigo for autumn


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kigo for mid-autumn

Fuji goboo 富士牛蒡(ふじごぼう) "Mount Fuji burdock"
subashiri goboo 、須走牛蒡(すばしりごぼう)
Fuji azami 富士薊 (ふじあざみ) "Mount Fuji thistle"
azami goboo 薊牛蒡(あざみごぼう)
Cirsium purpuratum
The name is burdock, but the plant belongs to the thistle family. The roots are often sold as a speciality of mountain hot springs and around Mount Fuji.



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Hiraki goboo 開牛蒡 (ひらきごぼう) "open" burdock
"divining sticks" burdock, sangi goboo 算木牛蒡(さんぎごぼう),
"crushed" burdock tataki goboo 叩牛蒡(たたきごぼう)
The long burdock roots are inscised various times and boiled long as they are. They resemble the divining sticks of temples and shrines. Sometimes the burdock is crushed.
kigo for the New Year


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sacred rope like burdock, goboo jime 牛蒡注連( ごぼうじめ)
kigo for the New Year
Shimenawa 注連縄 details about the sacred rope


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Yamamori Goboo 山盛りのゴボウ
Eating large portions of burdock

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This is an event in the town of Kuninaka in Echizen, Fukui prefecture.
The "Goboo eating group" goboo koo ごぼう講 meets on February 17. The men in official robes eat long stripes of burdock and drink sake to pray for a good harvest and good luck for the coming year.
This dates back to the year 1705 when the poor villagers kept a secret field in the compounds of the local shrine Kuninaka jinja 国中神社 to grow some extra rice they did not have to give a way as tax crop. They offered the rice and burdock to the local deity and partook of it afterwards. Nowadays, 48 families of the village still keep this tradition.

About 30 menfolk of the neighbourhood meet at the home of the one in charge for this year. They have to eat a lot of rice and burdock, 5 go cups of cooked of rice each (gogoo mossoomeshi 五合物相飯). This year 3oo kilograms of burdock were cooked and eaten with the fingers.

. . . CLICK here for Photos of shrine Kuninaka Jinja ! 国中神社


福井県越前市国中町

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Dishes with burdock root


kinpira gobo, kinpira gobō, kinpira goboo
きんぴらごぼう

simmered burdock root, braised burdock root
Carrots and burdock are stir-fried with salt and sugar.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !



Chikuzen-Ni with gobo
Fukuoka speciality.



Goboojiru 牛蒡汁 Miso soup with burdock
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


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Horikawa goboo 堀川牛蒡 (ほりかわごぼう)
burdock from Horikawa
One of the Kyoto Vegetables. It has been discovered under the "Horikawa" moat which Toyotomi Hideyoshi had build more than 300 years ago.
It is so big the inside is hollowed out and stuffed with minced meat of chicken or fish before it is braized.

. . . CLICK here for Photos !


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Yahata-maki やはたまき (八幡巻き) goboo burdock roll
Kyoto speciality.
With goboo from Yahata town.



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Worldwide use


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Things found on the way



CLICK for more item.rakuten.co.jp/kimonoyasan/273-0298/
Tenugui, small towels with vegetable design


Kyooyasai 京野菜 vegetables from Kyoto
. . . CLICK here for Photos ! Kyoyasai

Kyoosai 京菜 Kyoto Vegetables
Gemüse aus Kyoto, Kyoto-Gemüse


Kyo yasai vegetables are not of origin in Kyoto, but include vegetables that have been introduced from other areas. The vegetables have adapted well to the soil and the water of Kyoto. The seeds and the cultivation methods have improved over the generations and these vegetables are now very important to the cuisine of the town. There are about 50 different kinds available, usually named after its place of origin. They are all of strong appetizing colors and mostly eaten fresh, often used in the temple kitchen and for the tea ceremony cooking. Nowadays, they are even advertised on the internet.
Many are cultivated since the Heian period and a lot grow in temple gardens. Some count 34 varieties as the traditional "Kyoto Vegetables of the temple cuisine".

Farmers wifes bring the vegetables to their customers in hand carts on certain days of the week.

Kyoto vegetables and pickles from these vegetables are also used in "obanzai" おばんざい Kyoto home cooking.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
. Kyoto Obanzai Dishes



daikon (だいこん) 大根 radish
from temple 聖護院 (Shoogooin)・辛味・青味・時無・桃山・茎・佐波賀 Sabaka in Maizuru ,郡大根
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Temple Shogo-In
This giant radish is also used for the dish called furofuki daikon "Gesimmerter Rettich".


ebiimo, ebi-imo 海老芋 sweet potatoes in the form of a shrimp and are prepared in famous dishes, like imoboo いもぼう【芋棒】potato sticks.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


kabu カブ turnips 佐波賀・松ヶ崎浮菜・聖護院 Shogoin・大内・舞鶴 , 東寺蕪 Toji kabu
Tempel Toji, Kyoto


kabocha, see
Shishigatani kabocha 鹿ヶ谷かぼちゃ pumpkin from Shishigatani, Kyoto


Kamo nasu, Kamonasu 賀茂茄子・京山  (eggplant) from the Kamigamo-area are as large as 300 to 400 grams per piece and are a summer vegetable. They are almost round. They are eaten boiled or fried with oil. With miso paste as dengaku.
They are the most well known of the Kyoto Vegetables. They are also used for pickles called "shibazuke".
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
... moginasu もぎなす they are a little smaller and harvested in early summer.

Kintoki ninjin 金時人参 Kintoki carrots Kyoo ninjin 京人参 "Kyoto carrots"

Kujoo negi, kujonegi 九条葱 leek from Kujoo
Near the tmeple Tooji.
Long green onion. It tastes best in the winter time. It is rather sticky, but this gives it a sweeter taste. The contrast of the white stem and green leaves is well liked and the leaves are also eaten.
These leek dates back to 711, according to the Kyoto Prefecture's Gardening Almanac of 1909.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

kuwai クワイ arrowhead bulb
Sagittaria trifolia

kyoo takenoko 京竹の子/ 京筍 bamboo shoots from Kyoto
They are a typical spring vegetable. They are grown in special groves of Rakusai (western Kyoto) and different from the wild varieties. They are sweet and soft and can be served raw when freshly picked, only with a vinegar-miso-sauce.

kyuuri, Shoogooin kyuuri 聖護院胡瓜(キュウリ) cucumbers
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


. Manganji toogarashi 万願寺唐辛子 hot green peppers from temple Mangan-Ji .

mibuna 壬生菜(ミブナ)leavy vegetables from the Mibu area
畑菜・鶯菜・花菜
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
Mibu Temple Kyoto

mizuna (Japanese cabbage) called mibuna, grown near Mibu-dera (Mibu temple) a temple renowned for kyogen (comic drama flourished from the middle of the 14th century). The clear spring water helped with the irrigation of the fields to grow this plant. It has feathery leaves and the stalk is white and thin. The color contrast is one of its charms, so is its crunchy bite. It is used for soups, pickles, fried or in a salad.

Made with steamed and cut mibuna :
. tonsho mochi 屯所餅 "garrison mochi" .   



myooga 京茗荷(ミョウガ)Japanese ginger


sasage 柊野ささげ(ササゲ) cowpea; black-eyed pea; southern pea
Vigna sinensis. Sasage-Bohne

seri 京芹(セリ) Japanese parsley; dropwort

Shishigatani nankin (pumpkin) see:
Shishigatani kabocha 鹿ヶ谷かぼちゃ pumpkin from Shishigatani, Kyoto

Shogoin kabura, Shoogooin kabu 聖護院かぶ, a kind of turnip started with seeds from Omi brought to Kyoto during the Edo period. The thinly sliced turnips, salted and pickled with kombu (kelp) are called senmaizuke 千枚付け, which is the first of its kind to be eaten with no other food.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


sugukina 酸茎菜(スグキナ)"sour turnip leaves"
Brassica rapa var. neosuguki
They are used for the pickle called "sugukizuke".
suguki are eaten as ochazuke in Kyoto.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


toogarashi トウガラシ chilli peppers
伏見・田中・山科・万願寺・鷹ヶ峰

udo, kyoo udo 京独活(ウド)京うど
mountain plant which produces fat, white, edible stalks.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
Udo from Edo


uri, Katsura uri 桂瓜(ウリ)gourd, melon
Cucumis. melo var. conomon
Katsura uri is used as the original ingredient for narazuke (pickles).
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


The temple cooks and chefs of Kyoto restaurants use these fresh vegetables for traditional dishes as well as some new experiments with Westernized dishes.
Nishiki Ichiba 錦市場 (Nishiki "Brocade" Market) is the kitchen of Kyoto.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !




京野菜摘みしばかりの涼しさに
Kyoo yasai tsumishi bakari no suzushisa ni

Kyoto vegetables -
freshly picked
they are so cool


Koono Kei-ichi 河野啓一
source : seseragi

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kiku kabura 菊かぶら / 菊蕪 "chrysanthemum turnip"
The best known are from Kamekura village 亀蔵.

This is a pickled turnip, which is cut many times and looks almost as a yellow chrysanthemum blossom. The yellow color is enhanced with seeds of the gardenia (kuchinashi). The pickle liquid is rather sweet.


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For specially trained cooks, there is the title of

Meister of Kyoto Vegetables 京野菜マイスター
kyooyasai maisutaa
"Kyo-yasai Meister"


You must pass an examination to become one and get a certificate for it.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !



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There is also a special logo mark for Kyoto specialities, including vegetables.
Kyoo maaku 京マーク Kyoto Speciality Logo


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furoshiki with vegetable patterns 京野菜風呂敷
. . . CLICK here for Photos !



tamanokoshi (marry into the purple) charm 玉の輿お守り
to marry a rich husband or wife
with design of Kyoto Vegetables
talisman at Imamiya shrine 今宮神社
Einheirat in eine reiche Familie




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HAIKU


sokobie no yado no kinpira goboo kana

foot-cold -
the little inn serves
burdock roots


Tsuda Teiko 津田汀子


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Related words

kigo for mid-summer

***** yamagoboo no hana 山牛蒡の花 (やまごぼうのはな)
flower of the pokeroot, pokeweed
Phytolacca esculenta





山牛蒡に石ころ寄せぬあらきはり
yamagoboo ni ishikoro yosenu arakihari


Takada Chooi 高田蝶衣 Takada Choi


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WASHOKU
Togarashi, toogarashi 唐辛子 red hot pepper



***** WASHOKU : INGREDIENTS
gobo

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4 comments:

anonymous kikkoman said...

quote Kikkoman
http://www.kikkoman.com/foodforum/thejapanesetablebackissues/16.shtml

by Daizo Tanaka

The Virtues of Kyoto Vegetables

Festooning grocer's and supermarket shelves throughout Japan's seasons, domestically grown vegetables are beautiful in shape and color and of immense variety - sometimes exquisite enough to be works of art in themselves and highly regarded for their flavor and uniformity of shape.

Among Japan's rich variety of produce, "Kyoto vegetables" (kyo-yasai), in particular, are considered superior, and special sections are often set aside in markets throughout the country for these products, prized for their distinctive flavor and place in the national diet.

Other than a few vegetables indigenous to the archipelago, such as myoga (mioga, a variety of ginger) and seri (water dropwort), the largest category of Japanese vegetables is made up of those introduced from overseas. The latter can be divided into two broad groups, depending on when they were introduced. One group includes satoimo (taro), negi (Welsh onion), kabu (turnip), daikon (giant radish), and nasu (eggplant), which were brought into Japan from China and Korea between the fifth and twelfth centuries. They became well-established crops all over the country and played an important role as side dishes in Japan's rice-based diet.

The other group are the "Western vegetables," introduced during the latter half of the Meiji period (1868-1912) and including tomatoes, green peppers, lettuce and cabbage. Consumption of these varieties, largely as salad vegetables, spread with the Westernization of the diet that took place from that time onward.

Kyoto vegetables are of the earlier introduced category, and cultivation of some of them go back to the Nara period (710-784). In 1987, it was decided that vegetables grown within Kyoto Prefecture since before the Meiji period could be labeled "traditional Kyoto vegetables," and this included some 34 varieties among the 17 species. The best known include: ebiimo, the large taro potato whose tip curves like a shrimp's tail; kujyonegi, a variety of long onion with tender greens; shogoin kabu, a grapefruit-sized turnip; kamo nasu, a large, round eggplant; shogoin daikon, the giant radish species favored in a hot dish called furofuki-daikon (simmered radish); shishigatani kabocha, a large, gourd-shaped squash; and kyo-takenoko, mild-tasting bamboo shoots.

Why Kyoto?

Kyoto prospered as the capital of ancient Japan for more than one thousand years after the emperor Kanmu built his palace there in 794. During that time, the city became the center of all things of excellence, whether it was people, arts, products, information or know-how, and distinctively Kyoto-style culture and arts were cultivated there. Vegetables were as much a part of this culture as anything. As commerce flourished, unusual or especially fine varieties of vegetables were brought in, and this included much produce that was donated to the imperial court and the great temples and shrines that graced the city.

Fresh seafood was difficult to obtain in this inland capital far removed from the sea, and most fish that was available was either salted or dried. In devising tasty preparations of these preserved seafood products, attention focused on vegetables as companion ingredients in cooking. This gave rise to today's continuing favorites: bodara to ebiimo (dried cod fillets with taro potatoes), migaki nishin to yamashina nasu (dried herring and eggplant), and wakame to takenoko (seaweed with bamboo shoots). And of course the vegetables were delicious on their own, eaten in various preparations.

These vegetables also flourished in Kyoto's soil and climate. The upper reaches of the Kamo, Takano and Katsura rivers supplied the soil with nutrients and maintained the water table, and the ample rainfall, mild temperatures and moderate humidity made it easy to grow tender greens.

The topography of the area, too, surrounded on three sides by mountains, meant that the winters were cold enough to further heighten the flavor of winter vegetables. Farmers used organic fertilizer produced from natural wastes in urban areas to nourish crops in nearby fields. Their innovative efforts and passed-down traditions, as well as the local demand for high-quality produce, have ensured that Kyoto vegetables maintain their delicious taste and distinctive quality.

Special Roles and Markets

Kyoto vegetables are associated with Kyoto - style dishes that are considered the height of Japanese cuisine, especially kaiseki ryori (the elegant meals accompanying the more formal tea ceremonies) and the vegetarian diet of the Buddhist temples. The chefs of five-star traditional-style restaurants in Tokyo make a point of purchasing their vegetables directly from faraway Kyoto. There are also many varieties of Kyoto-style pickled vegetables (kyo-tsukemono) in which Kyoto produce is indispensable; for example, senmai-zuke made of the large round shogoin kabu, shiba-zuke with kamo nasu, and suguki-zuke from the sugukina turnip. But, of course, they are also the stuff of ordinary daily fare, known in Kyoto by the age-old term "obanzai."

Even today, Kyoto is known for its distinctive furiuri tradition in which farmers bring their produce to market directly to consumers in the city. They make regular rounds of neighborhoods and steady customers with a hand-drawn cart or light truck loaded to the gills with fresh vegetables taken from the fields in the early morning.

Kyoto cuisine, Kyoto-style pickles and obanzai are sustained by the fact that so many people still treasure, protect and cultivate these special vegetables because they fulfill consumers' demands for the highest quality produce with which to create a meal with the very best flavor and fragrance.


Super-healthy Vegetables

Kyoto vegetables have long been prized because they have preserved their original character since ancient times, and now they are winning attention from a completely different angle because of their newly discovered health benefits. With a well - established reputation as a source of necessary nutrients (vitamins C and B1, as well as fiber), now it has been found that they also possess qualities that help protect the body against cancer. Kamo nasu and katsura uri, for example, are believed to have 2 to 12 times the cancer-fighting effects of the ordinary senryo nasu and white uri varieties sold generally. Shikagatani pumpkin and fushimi green peppers have also been found to be effective.

And thus, to the virtues of the traditional vegetables of Kyoto cultivated faithfully from ancient times, we can now add new merits. Kyoto vegetables are both old and new.

anonymous said...

Hi Gabi, don't tell us that about vegetables, now I must eat something!
Best!

anonymous SH said...

Greve Gabi,
I had to thank you for what
you post. I VALUE the educational cultural lessons as well as the
poetry. I copied the weblink which discussed the phenomena of the
Japanese Gods at the Crossroads.
This is great stuff, again THANKS.

anonymous said...

Thanks Gabi! Now I know what to do with these problem plants sprouting
up in the cow pasture. I believe the man who designed velcro got the
idea from this pesky vegetable's seed heads.
M.