4/11/2009

Ki no ko . Mushrooms Pilze

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Mushrooms (kinoko, ki no ko) as food

Various types of local mushrooms are used for food.
Most of them are kigo for late autumn. Some are also regional specialities.

mushrooms, kinoko, ki no ko, take 茸, 菌

first mushroom, hatsu-take hatsutake 初茸
mountain with mushrooms, takeyama 茸山



looking for mushrooms in the forest,
mushroom hunting, kinokogari 茸狩
picking mushrooms, kinoko tori 茸採り(きのことり)
bag for mushrooms, kinoko kago 茸籠(きのこかご)
mat to spread mushrooms to dry, kinoko mushiro 茸筵(たけむしろ)

"watchman for mushrooms" kinoko ban 茸番(きのこばん)
vendor of mushrooms, kinoko uri 茸売(きのこうり)



rice with fresh mushrooms, kinoko meshi,
takenoko meshi 茸飯

kigo for late autumn
..... a delicacy on a cold autumn night



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benitake 紅茸 / ベニタケ "red mushroom" "scarlet mushroom
Fam. Russulaceae
kigo for all autumn



chitake soba ちたけそば soba
buckwheat noodles with chichi mushrooms

chichitake チチタケ / 乳茸 Lactarius volemus


Enoki take えのきたけ, (えのきだけ)(榎茸) enoki mushrooms, enokidake, enoki-dake
enokidake, hackberry, velvet shank
Flammulina velutipes
kigo for early winter
cultivated version of the wild nameko.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
Enokitake-Pilz

They grow on old tree stumps and are beautifully white and shining. Grown in dark rooms, they look almost like moyashi bean sprouts.
They taste good when boiled in alufoil or added to a nabe hodgepodge.


. enoki 榎 nettletree, Chinese hackberry tree .


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Eringi エリンギ king trumpet mushroom
french horn mushroom, king oyster mushroom
Pleurotus eryngii

. . . CLICK here for Photos !

an edible mushroom native to Mediterranean regions of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, but also grown in parts of Asia.In Chinese, it is called xìng bào gū (杏鮑菇, lit. "almond abalone mushroom"), cì qín gū (刺芹菇, lit. "stab celery mushroom"), or cì qín cè ěr (刺芹側耳, lit. "stab celery side ear").

It is the largest species in the oyster mushroom genus, Pleurotus, which also contains the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. It has a thick, meaty white stem and a small tan cap (in young specimens). It has little flavor or aroma when raw. When cooked it, develops typical mushroom umami flavors, with a texture similar to that of abalone.

The mushroom has a good shelf life. An effective cultivation method was introduced to Japan around 1993 and has become popular there used in variety of dishes, and is now cultivated and sold commercially in Australia.
Its species name is derived from the fact that it grows in association with the roots of Eryngium campestre or other Eryngium plants (English names: 'Sea Holly' or 'Eryngo').
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !
Introduced to Japan in 1995.



Hiratake (ひらたけ) 平茸 oyster mushroom
Pleurotus ostreatus
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
Austernpilz, Austernseitling

Eringi is a cultivated kind of hiratake.


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CLICK for more photos

kikurage 木耳 (きくらげ) Jew's-ear; Judas-ear
lit. "jelly fish on a tree"
Auricularia auricula. Judasohr; Holunderschwamm,
Wolkenohrpilz "cloud ear mushroom"

kigo for mid-summer

It is sold dried and used for many side dishes in mountainous regions. It is used as a medicine in yakuzen medical dishes.



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Kuritake (くりたけ) 栗茸 Chestnut mushroom
..... kuri motashi 栗もたし(くりもたし)
Naematoloma sublateritium
kigo for late autumn
WKD ... more about Kuritake


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Maitake (まいたけ) 舞茸 Sheep’s Head, Hen of the Woods
Grifola frondosa
lit. "dancing mushroom".
black maitake, kuromai 黒舞茸(くろまい)
white maitake, shiromai 白舞茸(しろまい)
kigo for mid-autumn
Very popular in the Japanese kitchen, the KING of MUSHROOMS.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
The underground tubers from which hen of the woods arises has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine to enhance the immune system. Researchers have also indicated that whole maitake has the ability to regulate blood pressure, glucose, insulin, and both serum and liver lipids, such as cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids, and may also be useful for weight loss.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !
They are mostly grown in dark places.
The name "dancing mushroom" comes from the peasure when eating them, you feel like getting up and dance for gratitude.
Best in the kiritanpo hodgepodge of Akita.


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Matsutake (まつたけ) 松茸 pine mushroom
Tricholoma matsutake = syn. T. nauseosum
..... one of the most expensive !
matsutake meshi, 松茸飯 (まつたけめし)
kigo for late autumn

Matsutake are hard to harvest and therefore the price is very high. Domestic productions of Matsutake in Japan have been sharply reduced over the last fifty years due to a pine nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, and it has influenced the price a great deal. The annual harvest of Matsutake in Japan is now less than 1000 tons, and it is largely made up by imports from China, Korea, the American Pacific Northwest (Northern California - British Columbia) and Northern Europe (Sweden and Finland).The price for Matsutake in the Japanese market is highly dependent on quality, availability and origin. The Japanese Matsutake at the beginning of the season, which is the highest grade, can go up to $2000 per kilogram. In contrast, the average value for imported Matsutake is about $90 per kilogram.
Cooking
The main recipes for matsutake are matsutake soup, matsutake rice, grilled matsutake, etc. Their magnificently spicy aroma, similar to a blend of pine and cinnamon, enhances wild mushroom dishes and makes great recipes. The aroma lasts even after it is cooked.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Kiefernpilz


Matsutake sold in Japan come also from China, Korea and Canada.
In former times, matsutake was abundant and people could affort it in their regular winter sukiyaki, but could not afford meat. Since 1950 things changed slowly and now they have meat in the sukiyaki, but no pine mushrooms, and they can not even aford a small piece of matsutake in their soup.

Tanba matsutake 丹波松茸
pine mushrooms from the Tamba region.
They are the most expensive to be eaten in Kyoto.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
They come in three sizes,
koro コロ when the hat is not opened yet
wan 椀 when the hat starts opening "like a bowl"
hiraki 開き when the hat is fully opened
Some areas try to revive the local forest to make it easier for matsutake to grow in the forest. Trees are cut out to bring more sunshine to the ground and old leaves are taken away. One group is called "Matsutake juujigun" マツタケ十字軍, the Crusaders for Pine Mushrooms.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !




dobinmushi, dobin mushi どびん蒸し/ 土瓶蒸し
simmered in an earthen pot
with some dashi and mitsuba leaves, a shrimp, a piece of hamo eel and then some sudachi or kabosu citrus juice.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


yaki matsutake やきまつたけ/ 焼松茸
grilled on charcoal
Sometimes wrapped in alufoil, sometimes in Japanese paper soaked in ricewine.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


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hayamatsutake 早松茸 (はやまつたけ) "early matsutake"
. . . . . samatsu さまつ
kigo for late summer


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Nameko なめこ(滑子) "slippery kids" nameko mushrooms
Pholiota nameko
kigo for all winter
Wild version of the cultivated enoki.
nametake なめたけ【滑茸】 was their old name.
nameko soup, namekojiru 滑子汁(なめこじる)

CLICK for more photos A small, amber-brown mushroom with a slightly gelatinous coating, It is enjoyed in miso soup and nabemono hodgepodges.
Wild nameko grwos in Yamagata and in the Shirakami mountains in the beech tree forests.
Nowadays, they are grown in special containers and available all year.
They are not mentioned in the old records of Japan, since they were never availabel in Kyoto or Edo, but only locally. Their slipperiness (numeri) is good for digesting amino acids.
This mushroom is only used in the kitchen of Japan, not in other countries.
der Nameko
In Yamagata, there is a "Nameko Festival" なめこ祭り nameko matsuri.


nameko oroshi-ae なめおろしあえ
with grated radish and soy sauce

namekojiru なめこじる miso soup
usually a bit of sakekasu is added

. . . CLICK here for nameko food Photos !


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Saru no koshikake 猿の腰掛 (猿の腰掛け, さるのこしかけ)
shelf fungus, polypore

lit. "ape stool" "monkey's chair"
kosongan 胡孫眼(こそんがん)mashiratake 猿茸(ましらたけ)
Ganoderma Lucidum
kigo for all autumn
"Ling-zhi" in Chinese or "Reishi", "Saru-no-koshikake" or "Mannendake" in Japanese.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
Used for Chinese medicine.
Saru-no-koshikake


bukuryoo 茯苓 (ぶくりょう) Poria cocos
(a kind of "monkey's chair")
shirobukuryoo 白茯苓(しろぶくりょう)white Poria
akabukuryoo 赤茯苓(あかぶくりょう) red Poria
kigo for late autumn

It grows at the roots of akamatsu pines.

This mushroom is used in Chinese medicine to induce urin flow.

. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Fu Ling
Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns (formerly known as Poria cocos F.A. Wolf)
Called Fu Ling, it is collected between July and September.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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semitake 蝉茸 (せみたけ) "cicada mushroom"
semibana 蝉花(せみばな)
kanzemi 冠蝉(かんぜん)
It looks like the larva of the minmin cicada.
Chinese caterpillar mushroom

Cordyceps sobolifera
kigo for late summer

. . . CLICK here for Photos !


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shanpinyon シャンピニョン champignon
mashuruumu マシュルーム mushroom
Agaricus bisporus, known as table mushroom, cultivated mushroom or button mushroom, is an edible basidiomycete fungus which naturally occurs in grasslands, fields and meadows across Europe and North America, though has spread much more widely and is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms in the world. The original wild form bore a brownish cap and dark brown gills but more familiar is the current variant with a white form with white cap, stalk and flesh and brown gills.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !
In Japan since the Meiji period. Now availabel not only in cans but also as fresh ones.


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Shiitake 椎茸  shiitake mushrooms
Lentinula edodes
kigo for late autumn
They come fresh or dries in various qualities.
How to grow shiitake in your back yard
Daruma Museum
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !
Schiitakepilz, Pasaniapilz

There are two main differences
CLICK for more hana donko photos donko 冬茹椎茸, どんこ椎茸
... hana donko 花どんこ椎茸 (photo)
with thick meat when dried. They used to be exported to China during the Edo period.
When dried on large nets in a special heated room (jimoro shiage 地室仕上げ ) they last for a long time. After soaking them in water they give a very good dashi broth.
. . . CLICK here for donko Photos !

kooshin こうしん椎茸, 香信(こうしん)
with thin meat when dried
. . . CLICK here for kooshin Photos !

ishizuki 石づき ”part that clings to stone"
the stem of a mushroom. It is usually cut off and not eaten.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


しいたけ飯 shiitake meshi, rice with shiitake mushrooms
speciality of Miyasaki, Kyushu

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kigo for all spring

haru shiitake 春椎茸 (はるしいたけ ) Shiitake in spring
..... haruko 春子(はるこ)"children of spring"


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Shimeji しめじ (占地, 湿地茸, ) shimeji mushrooms
Lyophyllum shimeji
meadow mushrooms
kigo for late autumn
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
Shimeji (シメジ, 占地) is a group of edible mushrooms native to East Asia. Hon-shimeji (Lyophyllum shimeji) is a mycorrhizal fungi (similar to matsutake, porcini and truffle) and difficult to cultivate, while others are saprotroph and buna-shimeji is now widely cultivated. Shimeji is rich in umami taste such as guanylic acid, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid.

The Shimeji should always be cooked, it is not a good mushroom to serve raw. When raw this mushroom has a somewhat bitter taste; the bittereness disappears completely upon cooking. The cooked mushroom has a pleasant, firm, slightly crunchy texture and a slightly nutty flavor. Cooking also makes this mushroom easier to digest. In stir-fried foods, as well as with wild game or seafood it is a good mushroom. Also it can be used in soups, stews and in sauces. When cooked alone, Shimeji mushrooms can be sautéed as a whole, including the stem or stalk (only the very end cut off), using a higher temperature or they can be slow roasted on a low temperature with a small amount of butter or cooking oil. Shimeji is used in soups, nabe and takikomi gohan.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Champignons are a different kind, Agaricus campestris, A. hortensis and others


shimeji no takikomi gohan しめじの炊き込みご飯
boiled with rice
sometimes abura-age tofu pouches are added.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


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shooro 松露 (しょうろ) truffle, truffles
lit "dew of the pine"
shooro kaku 松露掻く(しょうろかく) scratching for truffles
Rhizopogon rubescens
kigo for late spring
Trüffel


tobidake とび茸 (とびだけ)
tonbimaitake トンビマイタケ
Speciality at Hijiori Onsen 肘折温泉, where a stone Jizo broke his ellbow (hiji).
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Founded a little after the year 800, Hijiori is said to have cured an old monk's broken elbow and is still known by that name ("elbow-broken").
Compared to other famous springs, Hijiori is more often visited by older individuals and those with chronic illnesses who come for the curative effects of bathing in the water. As a result many of the inns here offer rooms with kitchens where guests can prepare their own meals and stay for a week or more. And, as a result of this, Hijiori still is able to preserve its traditional morning market (which is actually open all day), where residents and guests alike are able to purchase delicious, fresh wild mountain vegetables, mushrooms, fish and other items.

Hijiori is also unique because of the nearby geothermal power plant which takes advantage of the abundant thermal heat in the area. The inns here are great for relaxation after a day of hiking or mushroom hunting (not on private land, however) in the mountains south of town. In addition Hijiori is famous for the production of Hijiori kokeshi, the traditional wooden doll of the Tohoku Region.
source :  okura


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plant kigo for all autumn

doku take 毒茸 (どくたけ) "poisonous mushroom"
doku kinoko どくきのこ
ase take 汗茸(あせたけ)"sweat mushroom"
shibire take しびれ茸(しびれたけ)
nigaguri take 苦栗茸(にがぐりたけ) "bitter chestnut mushroom"
Hypholoma fasciculare

warai take, waraitake 笑い茸(わらいたけ)"laughing mushroom"
laughing gym, laughing Jim, spectacular rustgill,
Gymnopilus junonius
This large orange mushroom is often found growing on tree stumps, logs, or tree bases. Some subspecies contain the hallucinogenic compound psilocybin.


tengu take 天狗茸 (てんぐたけ) death cup
lit. "Tengu goblin mushroom". Amanita pantherina
haetori take 蠅取茸(はえとりたけ)"Fliegenpilz"
beni tengu take 紅天狗茸(べにてんぐたけ)Amanita muscaria
tamago tengu take 卵天狗茸(たまごてんぐたけ) Amanita phalloides
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


tsukiyo take 月夜茸 (つきよたけ) moonlight mushroom
Omphalotus guepiniformis


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kigo for early autumn

naratake, tara take 楢茸 (ならたけ) honey fungus
Armillaria mellea

sakuradake 桜茸 (さくらだけ) "cherry mushroom"
sakuratake サクラタケ Mycena pura


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kigo for late autumn

hatsu nameko 初滑子 (はつなめこ) first nameko
hatsu nametake 初滑茸(はつなめたけ)
"slippery kids" nameko mushrooms
Pholiota nameko




iwatake iwa take 岩茸 (いわたけ) "cliff mushrooms"
Umbilicaria esculenta
takane iwatake 高嶺岩茸(たかねいわたけ)
iwatake tori 岩茸採り(いわたけとり) picking Iwatake
イワタケ

It was quite dangerous to pick them from the cliffs of high mountains.


Iwatake gathering at Kumano in Kishu
Kishū Kumano iwatake tori
Chinpei Suzuki (1829-1869). (Hiroshige II)


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Worldwide use

Cantharellus cibarius

Germany - Pfifferling
North America chanterelle, golden chanterelle or girolle


chanterelles
and a fresh spikehorn backstrap . . .
waxing hunter’s moon


Elaine Andre

- Spikehorn - a male deer of 1-1/2 years old, growing its first set of spike antlers
- Backstrap - the most prime tenderloin cut of venison

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India


Giddarpirhi mushroom (Trametes versicolor)


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Things found on the way



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HAIKU



source : photozou.jp


松茸やかぶれた程は松の形
matsutake ya kabureta hodo wa matsu no nari

pine mushrooms -
the more ragged its top
the more it looks like a red pine


Matsuo Basho, age 41




The name comes from the area where the mushroom grows, in a pine grove of Japanese red pines (akamatsu). But as Basho takes a closer look, he finds that the form of the mushroom itself resembles the tree. The broken parts of the hat look like the broken bark of akamatsu.

kabureta ... yabureta 笠の破れた辺りの模様


mushroom--
it's become so ragged
it looks like a pine

Tr. David Barnhill


A matsutake mushroom!
With its skin scarred, it looks like
A real pine tree!

Tr. Oseko


pine mushroom <>
scratched surface (state of being)
pine tree's shape

Jane Reichhold, literal translation


Further discussion of the translation
source : www.thehaikufoundation.org



. matsutake ya shiranu ko-no-ha no nebaritsuku .  



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CLICK for original LINK .. kandemoya.hida-ch.com
茸飯 kinoko meshi

ki no kuni no ki no ka narikeri kinoko meshi

in the land of trees
there is the fragrance of trees -
rice with mushrooms


Fujimoto Miwako (1950 - )
Born in Wakayama, a province with large forests.


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茸番の声を発する続けざま
kinoko ban no koe o hassuru tsuzukezama

the watchman for mushrooms
has his way in shouting and
raising his voice


. Hatano Soha (Sooha) 波多野爽波


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Related words

***** WASHOKU : INGREDIENTS

***** Mushrooms as KIGO

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6 comments:

facebook said...

okay, now I am hungry! Thanks Gabi...
DK

Anonymous said...

saru no ko ni sake kureru nari kinoko-gari
猿の子に酒くれる也茸狩

for the baby monkey
a nip of sake...
mushroom hunting

Issa writes a variation of this haiku, also in 1819:
tabi no ko ni sake kureru nari kinoko-gari
for the traveling child a nip of sake... mushroom hunting

Shinji Ogawa comments, "I think what Issa is trying to depict in these two haiku is the racket created by the mushroom hunting party: a bunch of drunkards who offer sake to whomever they meet."

Kobayashi Issa
(Tr. David Lanoue)
.

Anonymous said...

These mushrooms might put new meanings into Happy Meals:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnopilus_junonius -

bare grins
and side-bending laughter...
waraitake

opie

happy haiku forum
.

Anonymous said...

Maverick Mushrooms
Somewhere between microbiology, myth, and magic:

essay
http://kyotojournal.org/the-journal/nature/maverick-mushrooms/

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

書写山の僧によそはれ松茸飯
shoshazan no soo no yosoware matsutakemeshi

offered by the priest
from mount Shoshazan
this pine mushroom rice

Oomae Sachiko 大前幸子 Omae Sachiko

Mount Shoshazan, Hyogo

Gabi Greve - Issa said...

Kobayashi Issa

手の前に蝶の息つく茸哉
te no mae ni choo no ikitsuku kinoko kana

This hokku is from lunar 10/2 (November 15) in 1803, when Issa was staying by the Tone River just northeast of Edo with one of his supporters with whom he was studying the ancient Chinese Book of Songs 詩経. In the hokku, Issa seems to have reached down to pick a mushroom, probably for eating, since edible mushrooms were a greatly desired food when they were in season, though they were not always easy to find. Issa seems to have found one, but as he bends over, and before his hand actually reaches it, he sees a butterfly resting on top of the mushroom.

This hokku seems to evoke the moment when Issa's hand stops moving toward the mushroom and remains motionless before he decides to pull it back and allow the butterfly to continue to rest. He could have shooed it away and picked the mushroom, but he evidently decides that the butterfly's rest is more important than his own wish to pick the delicious-looking mushroom. As often, Issa decides not to interfere with a natural process, and here it seems he may be explicitly suggesting that the butterfly has taught him how to rest -- to lay aside his desire to have the mushroom.

Non-poisonous butterflies normally show their darkest or drabbest colors when they rest in order to avoid being seen by predators, so perhaps Issa simply didn't see the butterfly until he bent over to pick the mushroom.

Chris Drake