7/11/2008

Kankitsurui

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Citrus fruits (kankitsu rui)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: various, see below
***** Category: Humanity


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Explanation

Kankitsu, kankitsurui かんきつるい (柑橘類) citrus fruit
of the mikan family.

The double use of these Chinese characters 「kan 柑 」and 「kitsu 橘 (tachibana)」 are not standard Japanese, there for the spelling is often かんきつ類 . Originally they were used for mandarine orange and ponkan.


CLICK for more photos

They are all rich in vitamin C. Their juice is added to dishes, slices are added for decoration and to be eaten.
The juice is also used for drinks, pure or mixed with water or alcohol.

The peel can also be used as a flavor for soups and other dishes. In this case, organically grown fruit should be used.

The fruit of some is mixed with vinegar for different kinds of ponzu vinegars.

Most of them are produced in Kyushu and Shikoku, but also in other parts of Japan. Driving through a mikan area in spring is a joy, because of the fragrance of the blossoms in the air.

香酸柑橘類
ユズ、ダイダイ、カボス、スダチ、レモン、シークヮーサー、ライム、シトロン、


Banpeiyu 晩白柚(ばんぺいゆ)


As kigo, there are usually different seasons for the blossoms and the fruit.
Here we are concerned with the fruit, which are mostly kigo for autumn.

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buntan ブンタン / 文旦 Shaddock
zabon 朱欒 ざぼん, uchimirasaki うちむらさき
bontan ぼんたん, zanboa ざんぼあ, zanboざんぼ
Citrus grandis

- - - - and
zabon no hana 朱欒の花 (ざぼんのはな) Zabon blossoms
hanazabon 花朱欒(はなざぼん)
kigo for early summer




Daidai だいだい 橙, 臭橙 bitter orange
kaiseitoo 回青橙(かいせいとう)
Citrus aurantium
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
daidai means "many generations", it is therefore an auspicious fruit and used for
New Year Decorations.
blossoms are kigo for summer
fruit are kigo for winter
summer daidai 夏だいだい
winter daidai 冬だいだい
Pomeranze; bittere Orange

daidai kazaru 代々飾る(だいだいかざる) decorating with daidai
kigo for the New Year


daidai no hana 橙の花 (だいだいのはな) blossoms of the Daidai
kigo for late summer



. Daruma mikan 達磨蜜柑(だるまみかん)
mikan named Daruma
 
sanpookan 三宝柑 (さんぽうかん)mikan of the three treasures
hooraikan 蓬萊柑(ほうらいかん)mikan like Mount Horai (in paradise)
kigo for all spring



Gureepufuruutsu グレープフルーツ Grapefruit
Citrus sinensis or Citrus paradisi


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Hassaku はっさく (八朔) hassaku orange
Citrus hassaku
Introduced in the late Edo period via Hiroshima.
hassakukan 八朔柑(はっさくかん)
Rather small but very sweet and a tint of bitterness.
hassaku refers to the old name of the first of August.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
kigo for spring
Hassaku Apfelsine

. hassaku ningyoo 八朔人形 Hassaku dolls .
from Sano town, Tochigi




hyuuganatsu ヒュウガナツ / 日向夏 Citrus tamurana


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Iyokan いよかん (伊予柑) Iyokan orange
Iyo mikan いよみかん
anadomikan (穴門みかん)
Citrus iyo
First introduced in Yamaguchi, later in Ehime. Ripens in February and March.
It is very juicy, but its peel is thicker than the mikan. Now it is the second-most widely planted type in Japan, right after the unshuu types.
Many trees are kept on small plots of land, whith stone walls between the terraces. They are said to get the sun three times: first from the sky, second from the reflection of the sea, third from the reflection of the stone walls. This makes them especially sweet.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
die Iyokan



Kabosu 香母酢 (かぼす)
Citrus sphaerocarpa
Relative of the yuzu. Grows mostly in Oita prefecture.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
They use kabosu juice for many dishes, in ramen soup かぼすラーメン, ice cream かぼすアイス, over any fried fish and more.
. . . CLICK here for kabosu ice Photos !



karatachi no hana 枸橘の花 (からたちのはな) trifoliate orange blossoms
..... karatachi 枳殻(からたち)
..... からたちの花(からたちのはな)
Poncirus trifoliata Rafin
kigo for late spring
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


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Mikan, 蜜柑 (みかん) mandarin orange, tangerine
tangerine mountain, mikan yama 蜜柑山(みかんやま)
field with tangerine trees, mikanbatake 蜜柑畑(みかんばたけ)
kigo for all winter

green tangerine, ao mikan 青蜜柑 (あおみかん)
early tangerine, wasemikan 早生蜜柑(わせみかん)
kigo for all autumn

mikanmaki 蜜柑捲(みかんまき)
during the fuigo matsuri 鞴祭 ふいごまつり festival of the bellows
kigo for early winter

mikan kazaru 蜜柑飾る(みかんかざる) decorating with mikan
kigo for the New Year

mikansui 蜜柑水(みかんすい)mikan water / lemonade
kigo for all summer

mikan no hana 蜜柑の花 (みかんのはな) blossoms of the mikan
kigo for early summer
... hana mikan 花蜜柑
natsumikan no hana 夏蜜柑の花 (なつみかんのはな)
blossoms of the summer mikan


natsu mikan, natsumikan 夏蜜柑 (なつみかん) summer mikan
kigo for early summer
... natsudai 夏橙(なつだい), natsukan 夏柑(なつかん)
... amanatsu (甘夏) "sweet summer", natsu daidai 夏橙
Citrus natsudaidai
Natsumaian . Speciality of Hagi, Yamaguchi prefecture


kigo for early summer
Naruto kan 鳴門柑 (なるとかん) mikan from Naruto
Naruto mikan 鳴門蜜柑(なるとみかん)
Awa mikan 阿波蜜柑(あわみかん) mikan from Awa
Naruto and Awa are placenames from Awajima island off Kobe city.


Arida mikan ありだみかん Arida mandarin
from the Arida valley, Wakayama prefecture
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


Mikan Daruma みかんだるま


aomikan maamareedo 青みかんマーマレード green tangerine marmalade
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
Mandarinenmarmelade

. . . . .


kigo for all winter

CLICK for more photos
bushukan 仏手柑 "Buddha's hand mikan"
Citrus medica var. sarcodactylus


kunenbo 九年母 (くねんぼ)Citrus nobilis Lour
kootoo 香橙(こうとう)
nyuukan 乳柑(にゅうかん), kunebu くねぶ

. Kunenbo offering at Munakata Shrine .


- - - - - but

bushukan no hana 仏手柑の花 (ぶしゅかんのはな)
flowers of Bushukan
kigo for early summer



scented...
fingers close
in ancient prayer


- Shared by Pat Geyer -
Haiku Culture Magazine, 2013


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neeburu ネーブル navel orange
..... amadaidai, ama daidai 甘橙(あまだいだい) "sweet daidai"


Nekutarin ネクタリン nectarine


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Orenji オレソジ (おれんじ) orange

Orange juice, Orange squash,
orenji sukasshu オレンジスカッシュ
kigo for all summer

A cold drink, usually with ice cubes.

orenjieedo オレンジエード orangeade drink

orenjipiiru オレンジピール orange skin


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Ponkan ポンカン ponkan mandarin ('Chinese Honey Orange')
ponkan 凸柑(ぽんかん)
originated in Poona, India. Came to Japan via Kyushu.
Citrus reticulata
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
Ponkan is now probably the most widely-grown mandarin in the world. The fruit is rather large for a mandarin.
kigo for winter


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Raimu ライム lime, limes
Citrus aurantifolia
The outer skin is still green when used.
Fresh juice is poored over fried dishes, fish and salads.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
Limone



remon レモン (檸檬) lemon
Citrus limon
kigo for late autumn
Often used with vinegar for dressings.
Zitrone

remon juusu レモンジュース lemon juice

remon sui レモン水 , lemonade
Limonade

remon sukasshu レモンスカッシュ lemon squash

remontii レモンティー lemon tea
Zitronentee


aoi remon 青いレモン green lemon
"blue lemon"
speciality of 岩城島 Iwagi Island, Ehime
The islanders used to grow mikan, but when the prices dropped after the war, they slowly switched to green lemons, which grow well in the soil. They have a rather sweet taste and are used for many kinds of dressings and sauces.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


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shiikuwashaa シイクワシャー  Citrus depressa
... hirami remon ひらみレモン
Mostly grown in Okinawa



Sudachi すだち(酢橘)Relative of the yuzu.
.... kizu 木酢(きず) "tree vinegar"
Citrus sudachi
Speciality of Tokushima prefecture.
The Chinese characters use the TACHIBANA 橘 character.
Mostly used when the peel is still green. When ripe, the peel turns to orange color.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !
kigo for late autumn

die Sudachi



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Tankan タンカン(短桶、桶柑)
Citrus tankan Hayata


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Tachibana and related kigo




tachibana 橘 (たちばな) Tachibana citrus fruit
Citrus tachibana. wilde Mandarine
An inedible green citrus fruit native to Japan.


CLICK for more photos
It is one of the oldest mikan varieties and the oldest tree is in the temple Tachibanadera 橘寺  in Asuka, Nara. The temple is said to be the birthplace of prince Shotoku.
奈良県明日香村橘
. . . CLICK here for Photos of the temple!



kara tachi, karatachi からたち【枸橘/枳殻】
karatachi no mi 枳殻の実 (からたちのみ)
kikoku no mi 枳殻の実(きこくのみ)
Poncirus trifoliata
kigo for late autumn

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kinkitsu 金橘(きんきつ)Kinkan
..... himekitsu 姫橘(ひめきつ)
..... kinkan 金柑 (きんかん) Kinkan
Fortunella japonica
kigo for late autumn


kinkan no hana 金柑の花 (きんかんのはな) Kinkan blossoms
kigo for late summer

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hana tachibana 花橘 (はなたちばな) tachibana blossoms
..... tachibana no hana 橘の花(たちばなのはな)
..... nihon tachibana 日本橘(にほんたちばな)Japanese tachibana
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


CLICK for more photos
..... Ukon no tachibana 右近の橘(うこんのたちばな)
(This refers to a tree on the left of the Shrine Heian-Jingu. Together with the Sakon no Sakura cherry tree they are a famous decoration for the Dolls Festival on March 3..)
kookitsu no hana 香橘の花(こうきつのはな)
kunenbo no hana 九年母の花 (くねんぼのはな )
kigo for early or mid-summer

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Etsukitsu 越橘(えつきつ)Epigaea asiatica
small creeping shrub
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !
kigo for late summer



tachibanazuki 橘月(たちばなづき)"tachibana moon"
Old name for the fifth month of the Asian lunar calendar
kigo for mid-summer


and this one, same name but different plant

yabukooji 藪柑子 (やぶこうじ) Ardisia japonica
yama tachibana 山橘(やまたちばな) tachibana in the mountains
Ardisia japonica
kigo for all winter
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


kooji no hana 柑子の花 (こうじのはな) blossom of
Citrus leiocarpa
kigo for early summer


. Waka and Haiku about Tachibana .
Kokin Wakashu 古今集
- - - - - and by
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .

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CLICK for many more photos CLICK for more photos
Tachibana family crests 橘家紋
It was quite popular since olden times.

Tachibana no Sukune 橘宿禰 (たちばなのすくね)

quote
The Tachibana clan (橘) was one of the four most powerful kuge (court nobility) families in Japan's Nara and early Heian periods. Members of the Tachibana family often held high court posts within the Daijō-kan (Ministry of State), most frequently Sadaijin (Minister of the Left).

The name of Tachibana was bestowed on Agata Inukai no Michiyo 県犬養三千代(あがたいぬかいのみちよ) by Empress Gemmei 元明天皇 in 708. It is one of the four oldest family names 源平藤橘 in Japan, since the Heian period.

Tachibana no Moroe 橘諸兄(もろえ) and his brother
Tachibana no Sai 橘佐為(さい)


© More in the WIKIPEDIA !



Another famous Tachibana tree in Kyoto :
. Shishinden 紫宸殿 Hall for State Ceremonies .




. The Deity Tajimamori, Tajima Mori 田道間守命 .
thought to have plucked the citurs fruit from the "Eternal Land" Tokoyo no Kuni 常世国, 常世の国



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tangooru タンゴール Citrus sinensis var. tangerina

tankan タンカン Citrus tankan



Tsubaimomo ツバイ桃, 椿桃 [つばいもも] nectarine
This word derived from "tsubakimomo" つばきもも (椿桃).
also zubaimomo づばいもも 椿桃/油桃/光桃
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


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Unshuukitsu, 温州蜜 (うんしゅうきつ)
Japanese Mandarin Orange

Unshumikan, unshuu mikan 温州蜜柑(みかん) unshu mikan
Citrus unshiu
Has been introduced from China via Kagoshima.
See :
Arida mikan ありだみかん Arida mandarin


Harumi はるみ
Kiyomi 清見(きよみ)

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Yuzu 柚子 ゆず yuzu citrus fruit
juice or peel is used
Citrus junos
Yuzu as KIGO a ctiron fruit
..... Yuzu citron dishes for autumn Japan

yuzuzu, yuzu-zu, yuzu su 柚子酢 vinegar with yuzu
CLICK here for PHOTOS !


yuzugoma 柚子胡椒 soy sacue with sesame and yuzu flavor
yuzuneri 柚子ねり jam with yuzu flavor
Yuzu products from Yufuin, Oita, Kyushu



yugama ゆがま (柚釜) stuffed yuzu citron
kigo for autumn
CLICK for more photos
ausgehölte und gefüllte Yuzu-Zitrone


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Worldwide use

Zitrusfrucht

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Florida, USA

my daughter asks
for another tangerine -
Hammock Park


Laura Sherman

Hammock Park


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Things found on the way



The Tachibana, Fujiwara, Genji and Heike
are the four great clans of Old Japan.

Tachibana ya
you never know
what's in a name


Gabi Greve, January 2010


The Fujiwara clan ("wisteria plain") claims is descend from the deity
Ame no Koyane no Mikoto 天児屋命





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HAIKU





包丁のまへに玉置く酢橘かな  
hoochoo no mae ni tama oku sudachi kana   

I place a ball
in front of the knife -   
this sudachi


Yuriyama Uko (Ukoo) 百合山羽公


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蜜柑むいて大人の話聞いてゐる
mikan muite otona no hanashi kiite iru

peeling a mikan
I listen to the talk
of grown-ups


Nishimura Kazuko 西村和子
NHK Haiku December 2009


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orange flowers
how this bee loses
her head


- Shared by Stella Pierides -
Joys of Japan, 2012


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KENYA
oranges (Swahili : Mchungwa)

kigo for the cool dry season.



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Related words

***** Kudamono, fruit ... LIST



NEW YEAR KIGO
Decorations with citrus fruit



***** WASHOKU : INGREDIENTS
citron fruit

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5 comments:

Gabi Greve, Kenya Saijiki said...

citrus fruit haiku from Kenya

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/kenyasaijiki/message/3660

.

Gabi Greve - WKD said...

Prince Shotoku Taishi on his Black Horse

Kurokoma Taishi

statue at temple Tachibanadera

Gabi Greve - WKD said...


文旦は親分柚子はその子分
buntan wa oyabun yuzu wa sono kobun

buntan
is the great boss, yuzu
is his gang member
Tr. Gabi Greve

Takazawa Ryooichi 高澤良一 Takazawa Ryoichi
.

MORE
about oyabun / kobun

Gabi Greve - WKD said...

natsumikan from Hagi

夏みかん土塀に溢れ城下町
natsumikan dobei ni afure jookamachi

summer tangerines
overflowing the mud walls
of the castle town

Kitasato Senju 北里千寿

MORE
about castle towns
.

Gabi Greve - Buson said...

Yosa Buson

筍や柑子をゝしむ垣の外
takenoko ya kooji o oshimu kaki no soto
(1775)

these bamboo shoots -
outside the hedge that guards
the sweet tangerines

MORE
about hedges